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Adverse drug reactions were essentially systemic. Incriminated drugs were mainly antibiotics, allopurinol and cardio-vascular drugs. Gender, age and number of administered drugs did not seem to be risk factors of serious ADRs occurrence. Among older adults, 4% died further to a serious ADRs.
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Human pancreases were procured from cadaveric organ donors and preserved by the two-layer method (UW/PFC) for 2.9+/-0.7 hours (mean+/-SEM) at 4 degrees C after 11.8+/-1.5 hours of cold storage in UW (UW/PFC group, n=7), or by cold UW alone for 11.3+/-0.3 hours (UW group, n=14). The selected pancreases met the criteria of having at least 10 hours of cold storage in UW. All were processed by using a standard protocol of Liberase perfusion with Pefabloc by way of the duct, gentle mechanical dissociation, and Ficoll gradient purification. Transplanted islets were selected with the criteria of the Edmonton protocol (>5,000 islet equivalents [IE]/kg recipient body weight).
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A great variety of substances have been found to give rise to foreign body granulomatous reactions. The most common locations are the upper and lower lip and the nasogenian sulcus. The clinical presentation is variable and can range from single or multiple nodules to diffuse facial swelling of hard-elastic consistency, accompanied by reddening. Most lesions are asymptomatic or cause only mild discomfort. The literature describes different treatments, including systemic corticosteroids, local tacrolimus infiltrations, minocycline, retinoids, allopurinol, 5% imiquimod, and surgical removal.
The LPS resulted in a significant increase in intracellular calcium concentration (LPS 70.95 nM vs. control 44.04 nM). This increase was dependent on the presence of the white blood cell and could not be induced in its absence (control 30.15 --> LPS 32.78). Pretreatment inhibited these endotoxin-induced alterations: allopurinol, 50.49 nM; superoxide dismutase, 49.12 nM; and PTX, 40.23 nM (p < 0.01).
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Stomatitis in cancer chemotherapy manifests with pronounced subjective symptoms, lowers the patient's quality of life (QOL) and may necessitate the discontinuation of chemotherapy. There have been few effective therapies established to date for chemotherapy-induced stomatitis.
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Fibroblasts were obtained from involved skin of patients with limited or diffuse SSc. Oxidative activity imaging in living cells was carried out using confocal microscopy. Levels of O2- and H2O2 released from fibroblasts were estimated by the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-inhibitable cytochrome c reduction and homovanilic acid assays, respectively. To verify NADPH oxidase activation, the light membrane of fibroblasts was immunoblotted with an anti-p47phox-specific antibody. Fibroblasts were stimulated with various cytokines and growth factors to determine whether any of these factors modulate ROS generation. Cell proliferation was estimated by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Northern blot analysis was used to study alpha1 and alpha2 type I collagen gene expression.
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This is the first study evaluating gout treatment in a representative, random sample of Brazilian rheumatologists describing common treatment practices among these specialists. We identified several gaps in reported gout management, mainly concerning the use of colchicine and ULT and the duration of anti-inflammatory prophylaxis and ULT. Since rheumatologists are considered as opinion leaders in this disease, a program for improving quality of care for gout patients should focus on increasing their knowledge in this common disease.
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Increases in intracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) levels of sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) may have a crucial role in mediating the expression of adhesion molecules and thus contribute to the microcirculatory disturbances observed in primary graft dysfunction. The effect of changes in the composition and/or temperature of the reperfusion solution on cytosolic Ca(2+) was studied in isolated rat SECs. Cells were preserved in cold University of Wisconsin (UW) solution for 0, 12, or 24 hours and loaded with Fura-2AM dye (Cedarlane, Eugene, OR) at 20 degrees C in N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-propanesulfonic acid (HEPES)-buffered physiological solution (HEPES 20 degrees C) or UW solution (UW 20 degrees C). SEC Ca(2+) levels were measured by cytofluorimetry. Basal steady-state Ca(2+) levels were much lower when SECs were loaded in UW 20 degrees C (37 +/- 2 nmol/L) than in HEPES 20 degrees C (114 +/- 32 nmol/L). In unstored controls (0 hour), going from UW 20 degrees C to HEPES 37 degrees C induced a large transient increase (185 +/- 31 nmol/L) in SEC Ca(2+) levels, which was greatly inhibited (43 +/- 13 nmol/L) in Ca(2+)-free HEPES 37 degrees C. A similar large transient increase was observed going from UW 20 degrees C to HEPES 20 degrees C (163 +/- 22 nmol/L). Changing temperature only (20 degrees C to 37 degrees C) in UW or HEPES solution had a much smaller effect on SEC Ca(2+) levels (14 +/- 2 and 60 +/- 18 nmol/L, respectively). These changes were similar in cold-preserved cells. In unstored controls, solution changes greatly attenuated the intensity of subsequent Ca(2+) responses to the purinergic agonist adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Cold preservation (CP) greatly attenuated both the frequency of appearance and intensity of ATP-induced Ca(2+) responses. Hence, changing reperfusion solution composition has a greater impact on SEC steady-state Ca(2+) levels than changing temperature. Cold preservation does not significantly affect changes in SEC steady-state Ca(2+) levels, but greatly impairs the capacity of SECs to subsequently respond to Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists.
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Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to cigarette smoke and apoptosis in the rat gastric mucosa and the mechanism involved. Rats were exposed to different concentrations of cigarette smoke (0, 2, and 4%) once daily for a different number of 1 h periods (1, 3, 6, and 9 d). Apoptosis was identified by the terminal deoxy-transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and caspase-3 activity. The mucosal xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and p53 level were also measured. The results showed that exposure to cigarette smoke produced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in apoptosis in the rat gastric mucosa that was accompanied by an increase in XO activity. The increased apoptosis and XO activity could be detected after even a single exposure. In contrast, the level of p53 was elevated only in the later stage of cigarette smoke exposure. The apoptotic effect could be blocked by pretreatment with an XO inhibitor (allopurinol, 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or a hydroxyl free radical scavenger (DMSO, 0.2%, 1 ml/kg intravenously). However, neither of these treatments had any effect on the p53 level of the mucosa. In summary, we conclude that exposure to cigarette smoke can increase apoptosis in the rat gastric mucosa through a reactive oxygen species- (ROS) mediated and a p53-independent pathway.
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Patient ages ranged from 13 to 78, with an equal sex ratio. The most common offending drug was allopurinol followed by carbamazepine. Pathologic changes observed were lichenoid dermatitis, erythema multiforme, pseudolymphoma and vasculitis. Impairment of liver and renal functions and blood dyscrasia were frequent complications. Active infection or reactivation of HHV-6 was observed in 7 of 11 patients studied serologically. Two patients developed type 1 diabetes mellitus. The mortality rate was 10% (3 of 30).
Excess circulating uric acid, a product of hepatic glycolysis and purine metabolism, often accompanies metabolic syndrome. However, whether hyperuricaemia contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome or is merely a by-product of other processes that cause this disorder has not been resolved. In addition, how uric acid is cleared from the circulation is incompletely understood. Here we present a genetic model of spontaneous, early-onset metabolic syndrome in mice lacking the enterocyte urate transporter Glut9 (encoded by the SLC2A9 gene). Glut9-deficient mice develop impaired enterocyte uric acid transport kinetics, hyperuricaemia, hyperuricosuria, spontaneous hypertension, dyslipidaemia and elevated body fat. Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, can reverse the hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. These data provide evidence that hyperuricaemia per se could have deleterious metabolic sequelae. Moreover, these findings suggest that enterocytes may regulate whole-body metabolism, and that enterocyte urate metabolism could potentially be targeted to modulate or prevent metabolic syndrome.
To determine whether uric acid lowering agents reduce BP in patients with primary hypertension.
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At the high dosage of 600 mg daily, the uric-acid reducing effect of allopurinol depends on the initial level of uric-acid concentration in the same manner as at the usual dosage of 300 mg daily, but is more marked at the entire hyperuricaemic concentration range of 65--71 mumol/l (11--12 mg/l). After eight days at the same dosage of 600 mg daily allopurinol there is a highly significant correlation between the two variables, corresponding to the equation of uric acid effect of allopurinol = 0.893 x serum uric-acid concentration--29.27. At an uric-acid concentration of 476 mumol/l (80 mg/l); at a uric-acid level of about 595 mumol/l (100 mg/l) the average concentration reduction will be around 357 mumol/l (60 mg/l).
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Allopurinol has been used in the management of hyperuricemic states for several years. Despite its efficacy for these indications, recent concerns have been raised regarding the unnecessary morbidity and mortality occasionally associated with its inappropriate use. In an effort to assess the utilization of allopurinol, a concurrent drug utilization review was undertaken. Fifty patients who were prescribed allopurinol were entered into the study and underwent health record review and patient interview, to determine appropriateness of therapy and the need for educational intervention. A number of inconsistencies with regard to established guidelines were identified. As well, 11 of 50 patients (22%) required intervention because of either lack of indication or excessive dose. Fifty-five percent of the educational interventions, performed by the pharmacist, were accepted as written. The current utilization of allopurinol at our facility differs substantially from guidelines developed for optimal utilization of allopurinol. Further, a pharmacy based intervention program can improve prescribing practices of allopurinol.
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Hearts were harvested from Sprague-Dawley rats (250 to 350 g), mounted on a Langendorff apparatus, and instrumented with an intraventricular balloon. Hearts were flushed and stored with either unmodified University of Wisconsin solution (UWS) or UWS supplemented with 10 mmol/L of 2,3-butanedione monoxime and calcium 0.1 mmol/L (BDM). Hearts were then subjected to 12 hours of storage at one of five temperatures (0 degree, 4 degrees, 8 degrees, 12 degrees, or 16 degrees C) in a complete 2 x 5 factorial design (n = 6/group). Data are reported either as a percentage of the prestorage results or as an absolute value (mean +/- standard deviation).
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Nonpurine xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitors represent important alternatives to the purine analogue allopurinol, which is still the most widely used drug in the treatment of conditions associated with elevated uric acid levels in the blood. By condensing mono-, di- and trihydroxybenzaldehydes with aromatic thiosemicarbazides, aryl hydrazides and dithiocarbazates, three series of structurally related Schiff bases were synthesised, characterised and tested for XOR inhibitory activity. Hydroxy substitution in the para-position of the benzaldehyde component was found to confer high inhibitory activities. Acyl hydrazones were generally less potent than thiocarbonyl-containing Schiff bases. Within the thiosemicarbazone series, chloro and cyano substituents in the para-position of the thiosemicarbazide unit increased activities further, up to potencies approximately four-times higher than that of the benchmark allopurinol, as measured under the same assay conditions. In order to illustrate the potential of the Schiff bases to bind directly to the molybdenum centre in the active site of the enzyme, a representative example (H₂L) of each inhibitor series was co-ordinated to a cis-dioxomolybdenum(VI) unit, and the resulting complexes, [MoO₂(L)MeOH], were structurally characterised. Subsequent steady-state kinetic investigations, however, indicated mixed-type inhibition, similar to that observed for inhibitors known to bind within the substrate access channel of the enzyme, remote from the Mo centre. Enzyme co-crystallisation studies are thus required to determine the exact binding mode. Finally, the coordination of representative inhibitors to copper(II) gave rise to significantly decreased IC₅₀ values, revealing an additive effect that merits further investigation.
Male Yorkshire pigs subjected to cardiac death were perfused with cold University of Wisconsin solution. The perfused kidneys were removed and stored in cold University of Wisconsin solution for 24 hr. Kidney biopsies were obtained before cardiac death and at 0 and 24 hr of CI.
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Cardiovascular repair and myocardial contractility may be improved by migration of bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) and their delivery to the site of injury, a process known as BMSC homing. The aim of our study was to examine the dietary effect of a newly patented depurinized milk (DP) that is almost free of uric acid and purine and pyrimidine compounds compared with a standard commercial 1.5% fat UHT milk diet or allopurinol therapy in rat experimental hyperuricemia. Bone marrow stem cell potential (BMCD34(+), CD34-postive bone marrow cells), plasma oxidative stress parameters [advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], myocardial damage markers [creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)], plasma cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were investigated. The DP milk diet significantly increased the number of BMCD34(+) stem cells compared with commercial UHT milk. Allopurinol given alone also increased the number of BMCD34(+). Hyperuricemia caused a significant increase in all plasma enzyme markers for myocardial damage (CPK, LDH, and AST). A cardioprotective effect was achieved with allopurinol but almost equally with DP milk and more than with commercial milk. Regarding plasma AOPP, TBARS, and cholesterol levels, the most effective treatment was DP milk. In conclusion, the protective role of a milk diet on cardiovascular function may be enhanced through the new depurinized milk diet, which may improve cardiovascular system function via increased bone marrow stem cell regenerative potential, decreased plasma oxidative stress parameters, and decreased levels of myocardial damage markers and cholesterol. New dairy technology strategies focused on eliminating harmful milk compounds should be completely nontoxic. Novel milk products should be tested for their ability to improve tissue repair and function.
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When comparing the presence of T. cruzi clones in the allopurinol-treated group with the non-treated group significant differences were only observed for XD samples. Clone TcI was present in 9/13 (69.2%) of the XD samples of the treated group, but only in 8/27 (29.6%) in the non-treated group (P = 0.0178). When the itraconazole-treated group and the control group were compared, significant differences were found in both the blood and XD samples. In blood, the clone TcIIb was detected in 6/17 (35.5%) of the treated group and in 18/27 (66.7%) of the non-treated group (P = 0.0207). When XD samples were analysed, the clone TcI was observed in 14/17 (82.3%) of the itraconazole-treated group but only in 8/27 (29.6%) of the control group (P = 0.0006), which suggests resistance of this clone to itraconazole.
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This prospective observational study supports the hypothesis that DRESS is an original phenotype among SCAR in terms of clinical and biological characteristics, causative drugs, and time relation. The diversity of causative drugs was rather limited, and mortality was lower than that suggested by prior publications.
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Aspirin hypersensitivity has been associated with various genetic polymorphisms. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-related markers and a variety of genetic polymorphisms of leukotriene-related genes, eosinophil-related genes, and genes associated with immune function have been described according to ethnicity. The genetic mechanisms of antibiotic hypersensitivity have been reported in Italian, French, and Chinese populations in addition to antibiotics-induced cutaneous reactions in the Korean population. Most prior genetic studies on antituberculus drug-induced hepatitis have focused on a few drug-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 and N-acetyltransferase 2. HLA-related markers associated with CBZ, lamotrigine, and abacavir-induced severe hypersensitivity reactions have been described.
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We administered allopurinol (300 mg) and then 9 h later losartan potassium (100 mg) to 5 healthy subjects.
Acute limb ischemia is a critical condition with high mortality and morbidity even after surgical or endovascular intervention. Early recognition is important, but a delayed presentation is not uncommon. Viability of the limb is assessed by motor and sensory function and with interrogating Doppler flow signals in pedal arteries and popliteal veins as categorized by Rutherford. Category IIa indicates mild-to-moderate threat to limb salvage over a time frame without revascularization. Limb ischemia is critical without prompt revascularization in category IIb. Because the risk of reperfusion injury is high in this group of patients, perioperative management is important. In category III, reperfusion is not indicated except for embolism within several hours of onset. Intimal injury should be avoided by careful tactile control of a balloon with a smaller size catheter and under radiographic monitoring. Adjunctive treatment with catheter-directed thrombolysis or bypass surgery is sometimes necessary. Endovascular treatment is a promising option for thrombotic occlusion of an atherosclerotic artery. Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a serious problem. Controlled reperfusion with low-pressure perfusion at a reduced temperature and use of a leukocyte filter should be considered. The initial reperfusate is hyperosmolar, hypocalcemic, slightly alkaline, and contains free radical scavengers such as allopurinol. Immediate hemodialysis is necessary for acute renal injury caused by myoglobinemia. Compartment syndrome should be managed with assessment of intra-compartment pressure and fasciotomy.
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Hypothyroidism may predispose to the development of canine leishmaniosis or it may appear during the course of the latter due to infiltration and destruction of the thyroid gland by infected macrophages. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate thyroid function through measurement of serum total thyroxin (tT₄), free thyroxin (fT₄), and canine thyroid stimulating hormone (cTSH) concentrations in 36 dogs with leishmaniosis, before and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment with allopurinol with or without meglumine antimonate. Before treatment 27/36 (75%) dogs had serum tT₄ concentrations below the lower limit of the reference interval but only 2 of them had concurrently serum fT₄ concentrations below the lower limit of the reference interval and none had increased serum cTSH concentrations. During treatment there were no significant changes in serum tT₄ or fT₄ concentrations, whereas a significant increase in serum cTSH was observed. Two dogs had decreased serum tT₄ and fT₄ but normal cTSH concentrations before treatment and two other dogs had decreased serum tT₄ and increased cTSH, but normal fT₄ concentrations during the treatment period. Although hypothyroidism could not be definitively excluded in these dogs it is considered unlikely based on their overall hormonal profile, clinical presentation, and response to treatment. Therefore, hypothyroidism does not appear to be an important predisposing disease or a frequent complication of canine leishmaniosis.
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of starting antiepileptic drug treatment following a single seizure? What are the effects of drug monotherapy in people with partial epilepsy? What are the effects of additional drug treatments in people with drug-resistant partial epilepsy? What is the risk of relapse in people in remission when withdrawing antiepileptic drugs? What are the effects of behavioural and psychological treatments for people with epilepsy? What are the effects of surgery in people with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
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Total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular hospitalisations, cardiovascular mortality or hospitalisations.
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Hearts isolated from male Wistar rats were mounted on a Langendorff apparatus to estimate baseline cardiac function. The hearts were divided into three groups (n=6 per group) according to each preservation solution used: group 1, GIK solution; group 2, UW solution; and group 3, HTK solution. The hearts were then arrested and stored in each solution for 6, 8, and 12 hr at 4 degrees C. After storage, the hearts were reperfused and recovery of cardiac function and myocardial tissue water content were evaluated. Myocardial adenylate contents just after storage in each group (n=5 hearts/group) were also measured.
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Markedly lowered serum uric acid concentrations are a hallmark of xanthinuria and of hereditary renal hypouricemia, and in the absence of severe hepatic failure or evidence of an untoward drug effect should raise suspicion of these diseases. A targeted diagnostic work-up should then be initiated and factitious hypouricemia due to IgM paraproteinemia considered only in the case of equivocal test results. Molecular-genetic characterization and segregation analysis will ultimately establish the underlying genotype.
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Of 19,653 patients hospitalized in the medical divisions of two teaching hospitals, 3980 were treated with an aminopenicillin, 808 with other penicillins, 427 with a cephalosporin, 2619 with cotrimoxazole and 846 with allopurinol. The first part of the study deals only with the incidence of exanthemas definitely or probably due to a specific drug on the basis of clinical considerations. The exanthema incidence is 8.0% for aminopenicillins, 4.7% for other penicillins, 1.9% for cephalosporins and 2.8% for cotrimoxazole. The second part of the study employs a cross-tabulation to determine the incidence of exanthemas definitely and probably drug-induced, and the temporal relationship of these reactions to aminopenicillin and allopurinol exposure. The observed risks of developing an exanthema are as follows: aminopenicillin without allopurinol 10.1%, aminopenicillin combined with allopurinol 7.2%, allopurinol without aminopenicillin 3.0%, neither of the two drugs 1.5%. The increased incidence of exanthemas observed by the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program (BCDSP) in patients concomitantly treated with aminopenicillin and allopurinol was not confirmed by our results. Our hypothesis is that the time of exposure to aminopenicillins might have been shorter for patients of the BCDSP who were not treated in connection with neoplastic disease and did not receive allopurinol. The incidence of aminopenicillin induced exanthemas increases severalfold with the duration of exposure time during the first 2-3 weeks. In the CHDMB, on the other hand, exposure time does not differ between the patients treated with aminopenicillin alone or in combination with allopurinol.
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Sprague-Dawley male rats were given 10% fructose in drinking water and standard laboratory chow for 4 weeks to induce hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome. Then fructose-fed animals were randomly divided into four groups receiving water, Simiao pill (78.87 and 157.74 mg/kg) and allopurinol (5mg/kg) daily for next 6 weeks, respectively. Serum levels of uric acid, creatinine, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, blood urea nitrogen, insulin, as well as urinary albumin were measured. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried out. Kidney pathological changes were detected using periodic-acid schiff-stained (PAS) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Glomerular protein levels of nephrin, podocin, CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), interleukin (IL)-1β, sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome were measured by Western blot.
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Allopurinol stimulated MRP4-mediated cellular urate efflux and allopurinol and oxypurinol both markedly stimulated urate transport by MRP4 in membrane vesicles. Bumetanide and torasemide had no effect, whereas furosemide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide, salicylate, benzbromarone and sulfinpyrazone inhibited urate transport, at concentrations ranging from nanomolar up to millimolar. Probenecid stimulated urate transport at 0.1 microM and inhibited transport at higher concentrations.
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Although prescribing errors were high with both alert designs, the redesigned alerts significantly improved prescribing outcomes. This investigation provides some of the first evidence on how alerts may be designed to support safer prescribing for patients with renal impairment.
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Four groups of 14 rats underwent laparotomy and collecting 20 cm of ileum, for preservation, at 4ºC, in Belzer (Belz), Ringer (RL), Celsior (Cs) and Custodiol (Cust) solutions, for 24 hours. Prior to collection, half of the animals in each group were subjected to IPC. During preservation, in the periods of zero, 12, 18 and 24 hours, were conducted evaluating the degree of mucosal injury and dosage of malondialdehyde acid (MDA).
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For acute pouchitis, very low quality evidence suggests that ciprofloxacin may be more effective than metronidazole. For chronic pouchitis, low quality evidence suggests that VSL#3 may be more effective than placebo for maintenance of remission. For the prevention of pouchitis, low quality evidence suggests that VSL#3 may be more effective than placebo. Well designed, adequately powered studies are needed to determine the optimal therapy for the treatment and prevention of pouchitis.