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Both treatment groups showed significant improvement compared with their baseline values in the four primary endpoints. Mean between-treatment differences favoured aceclofenac over paracetamol on pain (VAS, 7.64 mm [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.44-14.85 mm]), Lequesne OA index (1.41 [95% CI, 0.45-2.36]), and patient's (0.33 [95% CI, 0.06-0.61]) and physician's (0.23 [95% CI, 0.01-0.47]) global assessments. Adverse events were similar for both drugs (paracetamol, 29% patients vs aceclofenac, 32%; P=0.71). Four patients withdrew in each group due to adverse events. Patients tended to prefer aceclofenac to paracetamol (P=0.001), and more treated with paracetamol withdrew from the study due to lack of efficacy (n=8 vs n=1, P=0.035, for paracetamol and aceclofenac, respectively).
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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes involved in riluzole oxidation and glucuronidation were characterized in (1) kinetic studies with human hepatic microsomes and isoenzyme-selective probes and (2) metabolic studies with genetically expressed human CYP isoenzymes from transfected B-lymphoblastoid and yeast cells. In vitro incubation of [14C]riluzole (15 microM) with human hepatic microsomes and NADPH or UDPGA cofactors resulted in formation of N-hydroxyriluzole (K(m) = 30 microM) or an unidentified glucuroconjugate (K(m) = 118 microM). Human microsomal riluzole N-hydroxylation was most strongly inhibited by the CYP1A2 inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone (IC50 = 0.42 microM). Human CYP1A2-expressing yeast microsomes generated N-hydroxyriluzole, whereas human CYP1A1-expressing yeast microsomes generated N-hydroxyriluzole, two additional hydroxylated derivatives and an O-dealkylated derivative. CYP1A2 was the only genetically expressed human P450 isoenzyme in B-lymphoblastoid microsomes to metabolize riluzole. Riluzole glucuronidation was inhibited most potently by propofol, a substrate for the human hepatic UGT HP4 (UGT1.8/9) isoenzyme. In vitro, human hepatic microsomal hydroxylation of riluzole (15 microM) was weakly inhibited by amitriptyline, diclofenac, diazepam, nicergoline, clomipramine, imipramine, quinine and enoxacin (IC50 approximately 200-500 microM) and cimetidine (IC50 = 940 microM). Riluzole (1 and 10 microM) produced a weak, concentration-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2 activity and showed competitive inhibition of methoxyresorufin O-demethylase. Thus, riluzole is predominantly metabolized by CYP1A2 in human hepatic microsomes to N-hydroxyriluzole; extrahepatic CYP1A1 can also be responsible for the formation of several other metabolites. Direct glucuronidation is a relatively minor metabolic route. In vivo, riluzole is unlikely to exhibit significant pharmacokinetic drug interaction with coadministered drugs that undergo phase I metabolism.
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The removal of 10 organic micropollutants (OMPs) was studied in two MBRs using different types of membrane (flat sheet microfiltration, MF, and hollow fiber ultrafiltration, UF) operated under aerobic conditions with direct dosing of powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the mixed liquor. In both reactors high COD degradation and nitrification were achieved (>95%), while nitrate removal was only observed after PAC addition. The adsorbent improved the operation of both systems (sludge properties and microbial diversity) which resulted in an enhancement of the quality of the final effluent. The operation with both types of membrane was feasible being the UF system slightly better in terms of the quality of the final effluent. The strategy of 250 mg/L of PAC additions every 35 days was validated according to the results obtained for the removal of the most recalcitrant OMPs, such as diclofenac and carbamazepine. Concerning the type of membrane, only significant differences were observed for diclofenac and roxithromycin, which were better removed in the UF configuration. These differences were attributed to sorption and/or further biotransformation processes occurring in the cake layer.
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In India, a number of fixed dose drug combinations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's) are available, often as over-the-counter products. These combinations are being prescribed too. Evidence for efficacy of NSIAD fixed dose combination is lacking.
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The bark of Rhizophora mangle, the red mangrove, has been used traditionally in folk medicine of Caribbean countries due to its antiseptic, astringent, haemostatic and antifungal properties. Aqueous extracts are rich in tannins and have been proven experimentally to possess antibacterial, wound healing and antiulcerogenic effects. This work was designed to determine the gastroprotective effect of Rhizophora mangle in a model of diclofenac-induced ulcers in rats and to study the mechanisms involved, using the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole as a comparison. The lyophilized extract was given by oral gavage (125 and 62.5mg/kg) three times at 12h intervals before administering diclofenac 100mg/kg. Pretreatment with the extract resulted in a significant decrease of the ulcerated area (P<0.01). Rhizophora mangle induced a recovery of PGE(2) levels, which had been depleted by diclofenac. No anti-inflammatory effect was observed ex vivo or in vitro. The highest dose of the extract provoked a marked increase in glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, which was comparable to omeprazole. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation levels were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the gastroprotective effect of Rhizophora mangle in this experimental model appears through an antioxidant and prostaglandin-dependent way.
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Ketamine is currently the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blocker in clinical use. Morphine in pain management is usually limited by adverse effect such as nausea and vomiting. Adjuvant treatment with ketamine may be value in giving better analgesia with fewer adverse effects. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the differences when patients received morphine with adjuvant ketamine (MK) compared with higher dose of morphine (MO) for acute pain.
Ketoprofen patches are effective and safe pain relievers for the treatment of sports injury pain with advantages compared with diclofenac gel.
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DFNa was successfully dispersed into IPM as a nanosized suspension via complex formation with sucrose erucate. The resultant SONS increased the permeability flux of DFNa across the YMP skin by up to 3.8-fold compared with the control. The size of the SONS depended on the weight ratio of the surfactant to DFNa. The optimal weight ratio for the highest DFNa permeation was 8.8, at which point the mean diameter of the SONS was 14.4 nm.
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Valdecoxib was significantly better at endpoint than standard doses of naproxen, diclofenac, and ibuprofen for pain intensity scores (p < 0.05), and provided significantly improved nonpain symptom and satisfaction scores compared with naproxen for patients with RA (p < 0.05). For RA patients, the difference between valdecoxib and naproxen pain intensity scores were clinically meaningful; at all the time points, significantly fewer patients receiving valdecoxib reported severe dyspepsia pain intensity increases (>/=10 points) than those receiving naproxen. At 12 wk, fewer patients receiving valdecoxib reported severe dyspepsia pain intensity increases versus those receiving ibuprofen and diclofenac.
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Drug-induced nephrotoxicity still hampers drug development, because current translation from in vitro or animal studies to human lacks high predictivity. Often, renal adverse effects are recognized only during clinical stages of drug development. The current study aimed to establish a robust and a more complete human cell model suitable for screening of drug-related interactions and nephrotoxicity. In addition to endogenously expressed renal organic cation transporters and efflux transporters, conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC) were completed by transduction of cells with the organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 or OAT3. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting upon exposure to the OAT substrate fluorescein successfully enriched transduced cells. A panel of organic anions was screened for drug-interactions in ciPTEC-OAT1 and ciPTEC-OAT3. The cytotoxic response to the drug-interactions with antivirals was further examined by cell viability assays. Upon subcloning, concentration-dependent fluorescein uptake was found with a higher affinity for ciPTEC-OAT1 (Km = 0.8 ± 0.1 μM) than ciPTEC-OAT3 (Km = 3.7 ± 0.5 μM). Co-exposure to known OAT1 and/or OAT3 substrates (viz. para-aminohippurate, estrone sulfate, probenecid, furosemide, diclofenac, and cimetidine) in cultures spanning 29 passage numbers revealed relevant inhibitory potencies, confirming the robustness of our model for drug-drug interactions studies. Functional OAT1 was directly responsible for cytotoxicity of adefovir, cidofovir, and tenofovir, while a drug interaction with zidovudine was not associated with decreased cell viability. Our data demonstrate that human-derived ciPTEC-OAT1 and ciPTEC-OAT3 are promising platforms for highly predictive drug screening during early phases of drug development.
Pathologic activation of both digestive zymogens and the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB are early events in acute pancreatitis; these pathologic processes are inhibited in experimental pancreatitis by curcumin and the pH modulator chloroquine. Primary sensory neurons may constitute a final common pathway for pancreatic inflammation. Experimental acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury are attenuated by inhibiting the prostanoid mediators cyclo-oxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase and CC chemokine receptor antagonist Met-RANTES. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-induced acute pancreatitis can be reduced experimentally by intraductal neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist and clinically by use of diclofenac and pancreatic duct stenting. MRI in the setting of acute pancreatitis is a reliable method of staging disease severity. Distinct patterns of cytokine response are observed in acute pancreatitis.
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We compared the effect of rofecoxib and three nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on platelet function, measured by CD 62 P expression. Platelet function was not altered by rofecoxib, but it was inhibited by aspirin, diclofenac, and lornoxicam. Rofecoxib may be safer than classic NSAIDs with respect to platelet function during the perioperative period.
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Recent prescription NSAID use was associated with an increased risk for initiation of antihypertensive therapy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95%CI 1.5, 1.7) as were selective COX-2 inhibitors (OR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.6, 2.1). After adjusting for age, sex, co-payment, race, and exposure to other NSAIDs/COX-2, each non-selective NSAID (diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, naproxen, oxaprozin) was associated with an increased risk of antihypertensive therapy initiation, with ORs ranging from 1.4 to 1.8. Recent users of COX-2 inhibitors had an increased risk of initiating antihypertensive therapy, regardless of specific drug (celecoxib adjusted OR = 1.7 (95%CI 1.3, 2.1); rofecoxib adjusted OR = 1.7 (95%CI 1.4, 1.9)).
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Tanezumab, a monoclonal antibody, inhibits nerve growth factor and reduces chronic pain. This randomised, double-blind, controlled multicentre study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tanezumab added to oral diclofenac sustained release (DSR) in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) pain.
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We searched the PubMed database for peer-reviewed articles published in any language from database inception through February 2016.
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Diclofenac, targeting COX have shown promise in the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Using various NSAIDs, Diclofenac sodium, Indomethacin, and Acetaminophen, here we determined the effects of NSAIDs on the biological properties of Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. Using amoebicidal assays, the results revealed that Diclofenac sodium, and Indomethacin affected growth of A. castellanii. In contrast, none of the compounds tested had any effect on the viability of A. castellanii. Importantly, all NSAIDs tested abolished A. castellanii encystation. This is a significant finding as the ability of amoebae to transform into the dormant cyst form presents a significant challenge in the successful treatment of infection. The NSAIDs inhibit production of cyclo-oxegenase, which regulates the synthesis of prostaglandins suggesting that cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and prostaglandins play significant role(s) in Acanthamoeba biology. As NSAIDs are routinely used in the clinical practice, these findings may help design improved preventative strategies and/or of therapeutic value to improve prognosis, when used in combination with other anti-amoebic drugs.
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In this research, we investigated the cytotoxic mechanisms of one of the widely used pharmaceuticals that are regularly associated with the adverse effects on the liver, sometimes leading to acute liver failure, diclofenac. Diclofenac liver cytotoxicity was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation which were inhibited by antioxidants and ROS scavengers, ferric chelator, inhibitors of reduced CYP2E1 and CYP2C9, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore sealing agents and endocytosis inhibitors. Incubation of hepatocytes with diclofenac caused rapid hepatocyte glutathione (GSH) depletion which is another marker of cellular oxidative stress. Most of the diclofenac-induced GSH depletion could be attributed to the expulsion of GSSG. Diclofenac cytotoxicity was also associated with mitochondrial injury, lysosomal membrane rupture and release of digestive proteases which were prevented by antioxidants, MPT pore sealing agents, lysosomotropic agents and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. These events could cause cytochrome C release from the mitochondrial intramembrane space to cytosol. The cytochrome C release could trigger activation of caspase-3 and apoptosis. We finally concluded that diclofenac hepatotoxicity is a result of metabolic activation by CYP2E1 and CYP2C9 and ROS formation, leading to a mitochondrial/lysosomal toxic cross-talk in the liver hepatocytes.
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Symptomatic hepatic effects attributable to most NSAIDs are extremely rare and usually mild.
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We included randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled or active-controlled studies, or both, using self administered diclofenac to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm.
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Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species.
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Low-dose droperidol and dolasetron are equally effective to reduce the incidence of PONV after cataract surgery under general anaesthesia. The combination of both drugs revealed no additional effect.
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To report the management of cardiovascular failure refractory to standard catecholamine therapy with terlipressin in a patient with tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) intoxication.
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The study included 61 patients randomized into three different groups; group A received desmopressin (40 microg, nasal spray), group B diclofenac (75 mg) intramuscularly and group C, both desmopressin and diclofenac. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from 'no pain' to 'unbearable pain') at baseline, 10, 20 and 30 min after administering the treatments.
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A five-port transperitoneal laparoscopic approach with an indigenous hand port was used to perform the radical cystectomy in a patient with muscle invasive TCC of bladder. After specimen retrieval, ileal conduit reconstruction was performed extra-corporeally through the site of hand port incision.
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Several clinical trials have demonstrated that low doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs relieve episodic tension-type headache (ETH).
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407 subjects successfully completed the 6-month treatment. Sixteen patients (12.2%) withdrew from the diclofenac group, 16 (12.2%) from the nabumetone group, 17 (11.8%) from the meloxicam group and five (9.1%) from the celecoxib group. Most withdrawals occurred during the first 3 months of treatment. Reasons for withdrawals in the first three groups were lack of efficacy (44.9%) and adverse effects (38.8%). For the celecoxib group, high cost (80%) was the main reason for withdrawal. Adverse drug reactions to NSAIDs mostly occurred at an early stage of treatment, with an incidence rate of 31.9% for the diclofenac group, 19.9% for the nabumetone group, 25.2% for the meloxicam group, and 7.27% for the celecoxib group. Clinical efficacy rates for the four NSAIDs were positively related to the length of treatment. During the first 4 months, diclofenac, meloxicam and celecoxib showed better efficacy than nabumetone. There were no significant differences in efficacy during the fifth and sixth months. The overall 6-month effectiveness rates were 68.8% for diclofenac, 59.8% for nabumetone, 67.6% for meloxicam and 69.1% for celecoxib.
RBXG has a quicker initiation and better treatment effects than sole anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents on the treatment of repeatedly attacking acute gouty arthritis, showing no obvious toxic or adverse reactions and therefore good for long-term administration and likely to be a safe TCM preparation to control the symptoms and reduce the onsets of repeatedly attacking of acute gouty arthritis. The animal experiment shows that both the compound preparation and part of the single ingredients in the recipe have the function of reducing blood uric acid. However, the compound recipe has better therapeutic effects, proving to be superior to single drugs.
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The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activities of ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% and 0.1%; diclofenac sodium 0.1%; and loteprednol etabonate 0.5% suspension in an animal model of ocular inflammation.
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There were no significant differences in age, estimated blood loss, oral intake, and hospital stay between groups. A significant difference in favor of the modified group was noted with respect to analgesia use (diclofenac sodium, 50 mg vs 100 mg; P<.05) in all 3 modified methods, as well as in cosmetic outcome in the groups undergoing the first modification (score, 8.9±2.2 VS 7.3±2.8; P<.05) and second modification (score, 8.7±2.5 VS 7.1±2.4; P<.05). In addition, the mean operative time in patients undergoing ureter operations was shorter than that in the conventional group using classical 3-port positions (55±11 minutes vs 70±15 minutes, P<.05).
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Polymerized rosin (PR) a novel film forming polymer is characterized and investigated in the present study for its application in drug delivery. Films were produced by a casting/solvent evaporation method from plasticizer free and plasticizer containing solutions. Films prepared from different formulations were studied for their mechanical (tensile strength, percent elongation and Young's modulus), water vapour transmission and moisture absorption characteristics. Neat PR films were slightly brittle and posed the problem of breaking during handling. Hydrophobic plasticizers, dibutyl sebacate and tributyl citrate, improved the mechanical properties of free films with both the plasticizers showing significant effects on film elongation. Release of diclofenac sodium (model drug) from coated pellets was sustained with high coating levels. Concentration of plasticizer was found to affect the release profile. PR films plasticized with hydrophobic plasticizers could therefore be used in coating processes for the design of oral sustained delivery dosage forms.
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The most common causes of variability in drug response include differences in drug metabolism, especially when the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are involved. The current study was conducted to assess the differences in CYP activities in human liver microsomes (HLM) of Chinese or Caucasian origin.
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To review the analgesic efficacy, duration of analgesia, and adverse effects of a single oral dose of lumiracoxib for moderate to severe postoperative pain in adults and compare it with established analgesics.
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In June of 1999, the market share of generic drugs in Spain was 1.15% in units and 0.91% in pesetas of the hole drug prescription. The most used were oral ranitidine, oral diclofenac and oral amoxicillin. Catalonia, in this period, has a greater relative utilization of generic drugs, specially in psychotherapeutic agents like alprazolam and fluoxetine. During the first semester of 1999 only in 9.9% of the occasions where generic drugs could be used, were they actually prescribed. Specifically, the drug most used in its generic form was oral diclofenac with 27.1% of the all possible prescriptions. The real savings generated by the generic drugs were 0.2% of the public pharmaceutical bill, and the theoretical capacity of savings with the current generic offer were 2.3%.
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Various diclofenac acid hydrazones and amides were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro and in vivo antimycobacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Preliminary results indicated that most of the compounds demonstrated better in vitro antimycobacterial activity (MIC: 0.0383-7.53 microM) than diclofenac (MIC: 21.10 microM) and ciprofloxacin (MIC: 9.41 microM). Among the synthesized compounds, 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-7-[[N4-(2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)phenyl)acetyl)-3-methyl]-N1-piperazinyl]-4-oxo-1,4-dihydro-3-quinoline carboxylic acid (5d) was found to be the most active compound in vitro with MIC of 0.0383 microM and was more potent than first line antitubercular drug isoniazid (MIC: 0.1822 microM). In the in vivo animal model 5d decreased the bacterial load in lung and spleen tissues with 2.42- and 3.66-log10 protections, respectively, at 25 mg/kg body weight.
In this prospective noncomparative case series, 10 eyes of 10 patients with clinically significant diabetic macular edema (n = 5), neovascular age-related macular degeneration (n = 2), pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (n = 1), macular edema secondary to old branch retinal vein occlusion (n = 1), and cystoid macular edema secondary to chronic intermediate uveitis (n = 1) received 500 microg/0.1 mL of intravitreal diclofenac. The primary outcome measure was change in visual acuity.
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This single-arm prospective observational study was designed to evaluate patient acceptability and feasibility of the Thermablate endometrial ablation (EA) system (TEAS), a new-generation endometrial thermal balloon ablation system, as an office procedure. It was set up in a one-stop menstrual disorder clinic with a facility for outpatient hysteroscopy in the Queen's Medical Center, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham, United Kingdom. Seventy premenopausal women mainly, with menorrhagia, without earlier endometrial preparation were included in the study. The exclusion criteria were women requesting general anesthesia, presence of submucous myoma, suggestion of malignant lesions, and a desire to preserve fertility. The intervention involved the use of global thermal EA with TEAS. This is an endometrial balloon ablation system that combines a "thermablation" time of 128 seconds with automatic controls of the treatment parameters of temperature and pressure, without any earlier endometrial preparation. Patients were given diclofenac sodium (100 mg orally) 2 hours before the procedure, with intracervical 4% prilocaine and intracavitary lidocaine gel for analgesia. Main results involved measurement of overall satisfaction with TEAS as an outpatient (office) procedure, intraoperative and postoperative pain scores, need for additional analgesia, nausea and vomiting rate, total time in clinic and the need for any admission, speed of recovery, and time away from home. In conclusion, the TEAS appears to be a well-accepted and safe outpatient procedure for treating menorrhagia.
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The inhibitory actions of etodolac on prostaglandin (PG) E2 biosynthesis, active oxygen generation and bradykinin formation were compared with those of indomethacin, diclofenac Na, piroxicam, naproxen, ketoprofen and aspirin. The inhibitory action (IC50 5.35 x 10(-8) M) of etodolac on PGE2 biosynthesis in rabbit articular chondrocytes stimulated by interleukin-1 (IL-1) beta was about 1/5 that of indomethacin. The inhibitory action of etodolac on spontaneous PGE2 biosynthesis in rabbit gastric epithelial cells (RGEs) (IC50 2.27 x 10(-5) M) and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCKs) (IC50 4.54 x 10(-7) M) was much less than that in rabbit articular chondrocytes stimulated by IL-1 beta and about 1/19 and 1/9 that of indomethacin in rabbit gastric epithelial cells (RGEs) and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCKs), respectively. The inhibitory action of etodolac on active oxygen generation was similar to that of indomethacin and piroxicam, and more potent than that of naproxen, ketoprofen and aspirin. The inhibitory action of etodolac on bradykinin formation was the most potent among the seven anti-inflammatory drugs tested. Both etodolac and bromelain inhibited the inflammatory pain in concanavalin A-treated paws of rats in a dose-dependent manner, but indomethacin did not. These results indicate that etodolac is an anti-inflammatory drug which suppress IL-1 beta-stimulated PGE2 biosynthesis in rabbit articular chondrocytes, active oxygen generation and bradykinin formation. It has less suppressive action against spontaneous PGE2 biosynthesis in RGEs and MDCKs. Thus, etodolac is considered to be a safe anti-inflammatory drug for clinical use.