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In this study, the frequency of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding was greater than reported in earlier studies involving subjects with a history of symptomatic genital recurrences. Our study is the first to demonstrate a significant reduction in viral shedding with valacyclovir 1 g daily compared to placebo in a population of subjects newly diagnosed with HSV-2 infection.
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One-year suppression therapy with oral valacyclovir (500 mg tablet daily) was shown to be as effective and as well tolerated as acyclovir (400 mg tablet twice daily) in reducing the rate of recurrent ocular HSV disease.
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Genital and labial herpes simplex virus infections are frequently encountered by primary care physicians in the United States. Whereas the diagnosis of this condition is often straightforward, choosing an appropriate drug (eg, acyclovir, valacyclovir hydrochloride, or famciclovir) and dosing regimen can be confusing in view of (1) competing clinical approaches to therapy; (2) evolving dosing schedules based on new research; (3) approved regimens of the Food and Drug Administration that may not match recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or of other experts; and (4) dissimilar regimens for oral and genital infections. The physician must first choose an approach to treatment (ie, intermittent episodic therapy, intermittent suppressive therapy, or chronic suppressive therapy) based on defined clinical characteristics and patient preference. Then, an evidence-based dosing regimen must be selected. In this review, data from all sources are tabulated to provide a handy clinical reference.
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After the first 3 months of suppressive therapy, 81% of subjects were free of recurrence. Recurrence-free rates remained undiminished during the second, third, and fourth quarters (84%, 84%, and 91%, respectively) and were similar for men and women. Thirty of 46 women (65%) and 56 of 81 men (69%) remained recurrence free during the study and therapy was well tolerated. Adverse events were mild, infrequent, and not considered related to the study drug.
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Two reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data from each trial. Statistical analyses were performed using the random effects model and results expressed as relative risk (RR) for dichotomous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Subgroup analysis and univariate meta-regression were performed using restricted maximum-likelihood to estimate the between study variance. Multivariate meta-regression was performed to investigate whether the results were altered after allowing for differences in drugs used, organ transplanted and recipient CMV serostatus at the time of transplantation.
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To assess the effects of antiviral treatments alone or in combination with any other therapy for Bell's palsy.
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We hypothesized that subset classification of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is required. At first, a blinded-random placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir in EBV CFS subset was performed (Group 1), and this EBV subset was followed for thirty-six months (Group 2). Patients were given valacyclovir at 14.3 mg/kg every 6 hours. The validated Energy Index (EI) point score assessing physical functional capacity, Holter monitor, multigated (radionuclide) MUGA rest/stress ventriculographic examination, EBV serum IgM viral capsid antibodies (VCA), and EBV early antigen diffuse (EA) were followed. After six-months, Group 1 CFS patients receiving valacyclovir experienced an increased mean least square EI point score +1.12 units (122 kcal/day), while the placebo cohort increased +0.42 EI units (65 kcal/day). EI point scores at Group 2 increased progressively. Sinus tachycardias decreased and abnormal cardiac wall motion improved. Serum antibody titers to EBV VCA IgM decreased. Patients resumed normal activities.
A 65-year-old female with anterior uveitis and hypotony in her right eye was given a STI (2 mg/0.5 ml). After the injection, she developed redness and an ocular discharge. A clinical examination was performed and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the viral DNA in a corneal scraping.
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General use of nucleoside analogues in the treatment of viral infections and cancer is often limited by poor oral absorption. Valacyclovir, a water soluble amino acid ester prodrug of acyclovir has been reported to increase the oral bioavailability of acyclovir but its absorption mechanism is unknown. This study characterized the intestinal absorption mechanism of 5' -amino acid ester prodrugs of the antiviral drugs and examined the potential of amino acid esters as an effective strategy for improving oral drug absorption.
This pilot study supports the addition of topical corticosteroids to an oral antiviral agent for the treatment of HSL. Larger studies need to confirm the safety and efficacy of this approach.
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In this study, we analyzed the incidence of PTLD in lung and heart-lung transplant recipients before 1996 (historic group) and then compared the impact of long-term anti-viral prophylaxis on the development of PTLD in EBV-seronegative recipients from January 1996 to December 2000 (post-1996 group). Routine induction therapy was not given after 1995. Patients not surviving 30 days, 25 of 341 (7.3%), were excluded.
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Valaciclovir was rapidly converted to acyclovir. The peak serum acyclovir concentration occurred 3 hours before the peak breast milk concentration (2.7 microg/mL at 1 hour vs 4.2 microg/mL at 4 hours). The serum acyclovir elimination half-life was 2.3 hours. The ratio of breast milk to serum acyclovir concentration was highest 4 hours after the initial dose at 3.4 and reached steady state ratio at 1.85. The median infant urine acyclovir concentration at steady state was 0.74 microg/mL.
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Valaciclovir (VACV) 2 g q.i.d. for 3 months after kidney transplantation has been shown, (Lowance et al., NEJM 1999; 340: 1462-70), to reduce CMV disease from 45 to 16% and rejection from 52 to 26% in CMV-negative (D+R-) recipients. Neurotoxic side effects, however, were frequent, and 5% of the patients experienced hallucinations. We hypothesised that a lower dosage of VACV would prevent CMV disease with fewer CNS side effects.
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Retrospective, uncontrolled, interventional case series.
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The only end point available for all the studies was the number of patients presenting at least one recurrence of genital herpes during the observation period.
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an uncommon cause of folliculitis. We present a case of a 29-year-old woman who presented with an atypical follicularly-based eruption localized to her inner thigh with an associated pain in her lower back and inner thigh prior to the papular eruption. She was successfully treated with valacyclovir 1,000 mg three times daily with no complications.
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The aim of the current study was to investigate whether multiple oral dosing of valacyclovir could result in plasma concentrations exceeding the EC(50)-value of acyclovir against equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV1) during the majority of the treatment period. Additionally, we wanted to determine the concentration of acyclovir in nasal mucus and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Valacyclovir was administered to four horses and two ponies, three times daily, at a dosage of 40 mg/kg, for four consecutive days. Blood was collected prior to each administration and 1 h after dosing. Nasal mucus samples and CSF were collected once during treatment; 1 h after the last administration. This dosage regimen resulted in plasma concentrations that were higher than the EC(50)-value of 1.7 microg/mL, i.e. EC(50) of an isolate highly susceptible to acyclovir, for 80% of the treatment period; and higher than the EC(50)-value of 3.0 microg/mL, i.e. EC(50) of an isolate less susceptible to acyclovir, for 60% of the treatment period. Concentration in nasal mucus samples and CSF was 0.36-1.17 microg/mL and 0.11-0.23 microg/mL, respectively. This study illustrates that multiple dosing of valacyclovir may result in a therapeutic benefit as plasma concentrations could be maintained above the EC(50)-value of acyclovir against EHV1 for more than 50% of the treatment period. Acyclovir could be detected in both nasal mucus samples and CSF. However, these concentrations were lower than the EC(50).
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Children 1 month through 5 years of age with or at risk for herpesvirus infection received a single 25 mg/kg dose of extemporaneously compounded valacyclovir oral suspension (n = 57), whereas children 1 through 11 years of age received 10 mg/kg valacyclovir oral suspension twice daily for 3-5 days (herpes simplex virus infection) (n = 28) or 20 mg/kg 3 times daily for 5 days (varicella-zoster virus infection) (n = 27). Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected during the 6 h after the first dose. Safety was monitored throughout the studies.
Thirty two trials (3737 participants) were identified. Prophylaxis with aciclovir, ganciclovir or valaciclovir compared with placebo or no treatment significantly reduced the risk for CMV disease (19 trials; RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.52), CMV infection (17 trials; RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.77), and all-cause mortality (17 trials; RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.92) primarily due to reduced mortality from CMV disease (seven trials; RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.78). Prophylaxis reduced the risk of herpes simplex and herpes zoster disease, bacterial and protozoal infections but not fungal infection, acute rejection or graft loss. Meta-regression showed no significant difference in the risk of CMV disease or all-cause mortality by organ transplanted or CMV serostatus; no conclusions were possible for CMV negative recipients of negative organs. In direct comparison trials, ganciclovir was more effective than aciclovir in preventing CMV disease (seven trials; RR 0.37, 95% Cl 0.23 to 0.60). Valganciclovir and intravenous ganciclovir were as effective as oral ganciclovir.
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydrochloride valacyclovir in treatment of varicella in pediatric patients between April 2006 and March 2007.
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Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) suppression has been shown to reduce HIV-1 disease progression in non-pregnant women and men, but effects on pregnant and postpartum women have not been described.
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The following data show results from the prospective first-trimester exposures registered since establishment of each registry. The published risk of birth defects in the general population range is 3% to 5%, and the risk in women with epilepsy is 6% to 9%. The proportions of outcomes with birth defects are as follows: in the Acyclovir (antiviral medication) Pregnancy Registry (1984-1998) (19/581), 3.3% (95% confidence interval, 2.0%-5.2%); in the Lamotrigine (monotherapy and polytherapy antiepileptic medication) Pregnancy Registry (1992-September 1998) (8/123), 6.5% (95% confidence interval, 3.1%-12.8%); in the Sumatriptan (migraine medication) Pregnancy Registry (1996-October 1998) (7/183), 3.8% (95% confidence interval, 1.7%-8.0%). The Valacyclovir, Bupropion, and Naratriptan registries have insufficient data for analysis.
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Combining both methods at colony level successfully suppressed the SGH in G. pallidipes colonies that had a high initial virus prevalence (average SGH of 24%). Six months after starting the combined treatment SGH symptoms were eliminated from the treated colony, in contrast to 28 months required to obtain the same results using clean feeding alone and 21 months using antiviral drug alone.
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Retrospective inception cohort study.
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In a prospective, double-blind trial, 20 women with a history of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infection and positive herpes simplex virus 2 serologic results were randomly assigned at 36 weeks' gestation to receive oral valacyclovir (500 mg twice daily) or acyclovir (400 mg 3 times daily). Acyclovir pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained after the initial dose (36 weeks) and at steady state (38 weeks). Amniotic fluid samples were obtained during labor and simultaneous umbilical cord and maternal plasma samples were collected at delivery. Laboratory studies were performed to screen for laboratory evidence of toxicity in mothers and infants.
Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, including sexual trauma, psoriasis, Behçet syndrome, and fixed drug eruptions, can also lead to genital ulcers. Although initial treatment of genital ulcers is generally based on clinical presentation, the following tests should be considered in all patients: serologic tests for syphilis and darkfield microscopy or direct fluorescent antibody testing for Treponema pallidum, culture or polymerase chain reaction test for herpes simplex virus, and culture for Haemophilus ducreyi in settings with a high prevalence of chancroid. No pathogen is identified in up to 25 percent of patients with genital ulcers. The first episode of herpes simplex virus infection is usually treated with seven to 10 days of oral acyclovir (five days for recurrent episodes). Famciclovir and valacyclovir are alternative therapies. One dose of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine is recommended to treat genital ulcers caused by primary syphilis. Treatment options for chancroid include a single dose of intramuscular ceftriaxone or oral azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, or erythromycin. Lymphogranuloma venereum and donovanosis are treated with 21 days of oral doxycycline. Treatment of noninfectious causes of genital ulcers varies by etiology, and ranges from topical wound care for ulcers caused by sexual trauma to consideration of subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a for ulcers caused by Behçet syndrome.
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Fifty-six subjects with at least 1 polymerase chain reaction measurement in both treatment periods comprised the primary efficacy population. Valacyclovir significantly reduced shedding during subclinical days compared to placebo [mean, 1.5% vs. 5.1% of subclinical days (P <0.001), a 71% reduction]. Eighty-four percent of subjects had no shedding while receiving valacyclovir versus 54% of subjects on placebo (P <0.001). Eighty-eight percent of patients receiving valacyclovir had no recognized signs or symptoms versus 77% for placebo (P = 0.033). Valacyclovir was not associated with any safety risk compared with placebo.