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We evaluated the GH response to combined administration of pyridostigmine (PD), a cholinergic agonist, and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) (60 mg PD given orally 60 min before the GHRH bolus) as well as baseline IGF-I concentrations in 10 patients (5 males and 5 females, age 6.0-24 years) with Prader-Labhard-Willi (PLW) syndrome, 8 prepubertal obese children (4 males and 4 females, age 5.6-12.0 years) and 9 prepubertal short normal children (7 males and 2 females, age 8.0-12.8 years). Mean GH responses to PD+GHRH were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in the PLW patients (13.8 +/- 3.3 micrograms/l) than in the short normal children (52.2 +/- 9.0 micrograms/l) and similar to those of the obese children (14.3 +/- 3.2 micrograms/l). Mean serum IGF-I levels were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the PLW patients (117.5 +/- 26.4 micrograms/l) than in the obese (329.3 +/- 88.0 micrograms/l) and the short normal children (214.3 +/- 38.3 micrograms/l). Two of the PLW patients had absent GH responses to PD+GHRH associated with subnormal IGF-I concentrations, indicating pituitary GH deficiency. When these 2 cases were excluded from the statistical calculation, mean peak GH responses to PD+GHRH remained significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in the PLW patients (17.1 +/- 3.0 micrograms/l), while their mean serum IGF-I concentrations (143.4 +/- 71.5 micrograms/l) were not significantly different from those of the other two groups. These results indicate that patients with the PLW syndrome have a reduced or absent GH secretory reserve associated in some cases with low levels of IGF-I.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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During the Persian Gulf War, pyridostigmine bromide (PB), a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, was used as prophylaxis against exposure to nerve gas. Exposure to PB has been suggested as a potential cause of the persistent fatigue reported among Gulf War veterans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and continuous exposure to low doses of PB on the neuromuscular junction. Organotypic spinal cord-muscle cocultures were used to examine in vitro the effects of PB under controlled conditions. Acute exposure to PB potentiated neuromuscular activity. Continuous exposure to PB produced a progressive decrease in the contractile activity of muscle fibers. Ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy revealed no abnormalities in the neuromuscular junctions after 1 week of exposure. Nerve terminal degeneration and atrophy of the postjunctional folds were evident after 2-week exposure to low-dose PB. The effects of PB were reversible following withdrawal. The reversibility of the PB-induced changes in vitro suggests that such changes are causally unrelated to the fatigue reported by Persian Gulf War veterans years after exposure to PB.
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A 31-year-old woman with postsynaptic CMS, not genetically characterized, was being treated with pyridostigmine and 3,4-DAP. She decided to become pregnant, despite having been informed about the paucity of available information on the possible risks of these drugs for the fetus. The dose of pyridostigmine remained stable throughout the pregnancy (60 mg every 8 h), and the 3,4-DAP dose was adjusted according to the patient's level of fatigue (20 mg/day, with occasional additional doses of 5 mg). At 25 weeks' gestation, ultrasonography confirmed the presence of only one umbilical artery. The results of other tests were normal. At 38 weeks' gestation, a healthy male neonate was born. His APGAR scores were 9 and 10 at 1 and 5 minutes, respectively. Five months later, the infant was healthy and his pediatric progress had been uneventful.
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The present study examined, in mice, whether regional patterns of brain monoamines concentrations (DA, 5-HT and their metabolites) and expression of c-Fos protein, that may represent a prolonged functional change in neurons, could be changed after a combined exposure to stress and the peripheral cholinesterase reversible inhibitor pyridostigmine (PYR). Animals were subjected every day to a random combination of mild unescapable electric footshocks and immobilization over a 12-day period, resulting in a significant increase of glucocorticoids levels and an activation of c-fos in hippocampus, thalamus and piriform cortex. This stress protocol induced a significant increase of 5-HT levels in striatum, hippocampus and ponto mesencephalic area (PMA) but failed to induce any DA activation. When PYR (0.2 mg/kg s.c. inducing 19-35% inhibition of the plasmatic ChE activity) was administered twice a day during the last 5 days of the stress session, 5-HIAA levels and expression of c-fos oncogene were significantly increased in the most of the brain areas studied. DA levels were also enhanced in striatum/hippocampus as a result of a possible activation of mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine systems. Taken together, these results suggest that a combined exposure to certain stress conditions and PYR leads, in mice, to functional changes in neurons and may affect centrally controlled functions. The mechanisms underlying these modifications and their behavioral implications remain to be further investigated.
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A sensitive and selective analytical method was used to measure the concentration of neostigmine and pyridostigmine in human plasma. The procedure involved preliminary ion-pair extraction of the drugs into dichloromethane, followed by concentration and anlysis of the ion-pair complex using a gas-liquid chromatographic system fitted with a nitrogen detector. Using the peak area ratio technique, pyridostigmine bromide was used as the internal standard for the quantitation of neostigmine in plasma; neostigmine bromide was the internal marker for the determination of pyridostigmine. The method depends on the thermal dequaternisation of the quaternary amines, and can be used to detect 5 ng/ml in a 3-ml plasma sample. Accurate measurement can be made at levels of 50-1000 ng/ml. This assay procedure has been applied to the separate determination of the plasma concentration of neostigmine and pyridostigmine after single administration of intravenous doses in aneasthetised patients.
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Pregnancy and family planning issues are frequent concerns in the medical care of patients with myasthenia gravis since disease onset often coincides with the life period which is decisive in this respect. Although pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding represent special circumstances in these patients, they are not associated with higher risks of complications compared to normal pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period. Frequently asked questions regard the course of pregnancy as well as the impact of the disease and particularly medical treatment on pregnancy and the foetus or neonate. Great significance is attached to the mode of delivery since it is still widely accepted that patients with myasthenia gravis have to deliver per elective caesarean section. This paper gives an overview and provides a basis for the medical care and individual counselling of patients with myasthenia gravis who want to start a family or are already pregnant.
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Hypersensitivity to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (anti-AChEs) causes severe nervous system symptoms under low dose exposure. In search of direct genetic origin(s) for this sensitivity, we studied six regions in the extended 22 kb promoter of the ACHE gene in individuals who presented adverse responses to anti-AChEs and in randomly chosen controls. Two contiguous mutations, a T-->A substitution, disrupting a putative glucocorticoid response element, and a 4-bp deletion, abolishing one of two adjacent HNF3 binding sites, were identified 17 kb upstream of the transcription start site. Allele frequencies for these mutations were 0.006 and 0.012, respectively, in 333 individuals of various ethnic origins, with a strong linkage between the deletion and the biochemically neutral H322N mutation in the coding region of ACHE. Heterozygous carriers of the deletion included a proband who presented with acute hypersensitivity to the anti-AChE pyridostigmine and another with unexplained excessive vomiting during a fourth pregnancy following three spontaneous abortions. Electromobility shift assays, transfection studies and measurements of AChE levels in immortalized lymphocytes as well as in peripheral blood from both carriers and non-carriers, revealed functional relevance for this mutation both in vitro and in vivo and showed it to increase AChE expression, probably by alleviating competition between the two hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 binding sites. Moreover, AChE-overexpressing transgenic mice, unlike normal FVB/N mice, displayed anti-AChE hypersensitivity and failed to transcriptionally induce AChE production following exposure to anti-AChEs. Our findings point to promoter polymorphism(s) in the ACHE gene as the dominant susceptibility factor(s) for adverse responses to exposure or to treatment with anti-AChEs.
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The place of pacemakers in the treatment of tachyarrhythmias has expanded far beyond the initial role in the brady-tachy syndrome, of providing a "minimum guaranteed rate" while medications suppress the tachycardia. Techniques have been developed for prevention, termination, and duplication of a patient's spontaneous tachycardia under safe catheterization laboratory conditions. Combined with accumulating information about the normal responses to electrophysiologic stresses, these techniques have led to a new dimension in arrhythmia control. Most tachycardias previously felt to be refractory can be controlled after serial electrophysiologic-pharmacologic testing, during which sequential pharmacologic and pacer regimens are tested until a combination is found which prevents induction of tachycardias, and/or a pace mode is found which reliably terminates the tachycardia. Use of such an approach reduces hospital admissions and referral for surgery, and eliminates prolonged hospitalization for assessment of therapy in patients with infrequent but potentially lethal spontaneous tachycardias.
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Fourteen patients were included in the study whose ages ranged from 1-17 years at presentation. One patient had congenital myasthenia gravis and 13 had juvenile myasthenia gravis. Thirteen of 14 (93%) patients presented with ocular findings; two of whom had associated systemic disease at presentation. Six of 14 (43%) patients had systemic involvement during the course of their illness, of whom three (21%) had respiratory compromise requiring assisted ventilation. Thirteen of 14 (93%) patients received pyridostigmine as first line treatment. Ten of 14 (71%) patients had a favorable response. A favorable response was defined as improvement in the extraocular motility to within 10 prism diopters of orthotropia with resolution of the blepharoptosis. Three of 14 patients (21%) received a combination of pyridostigmine and steroids, all of whom had a favorable response. Seven of 14 patients (50%) underwent thymectomy; all had a favorable response. Two of 14 patients (14%) required both blepharoptosis and strabismus surgery.
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Normal butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), but not several of its common genetic variants, serves as a scavenger for certain anti-cholinesterases (anti-ChEs). Consideration of this phenomenon becomes urgent in view of the large-scale prophylactic use of the anti-ChE, pyridostigmine, during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, in anticipation of nerve gas attack and of the anti-ChE, tacrine, for improving residual cholinergic neurotransmission in Alzheimer's disease patients. Adverse symptoms were reported for subjects in both groups, but have not been attributed to specific causes. Here, we report on an Israeli soldier, homozygous for 'atypical' BuChE, who suffered severe symptoms following pyridostigmine prophylaxis during the Persian Gulf War. His serum BuChE and recombinant 'atypical' BuChE were far less sensitive than normal BuChE to inhibition by pyridostigmine and several other carbamate anti-ChEs. Moreover, atypical BuChE demonstrated 1/200th the affinity for tacrine of normal BuChE or the related enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Genetic differences among BuChE variants may thus explain at least some of the adverse responses to anti-ChE therapies.
Gulf war illnesses (GWI) are currently affecting thousands of veterans. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these illnesses remain unknown. During Gulf war I, military personnel were exposed to multiple stressors, one or more vaccines, pyridostigmine (PY), and other chemicals. In our previous studies, we found that stress induces activation of mitogen activated protein-kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the mouse brain (Liu et al. 2004). Our working hypothesis is that stress, vaccination, and PY may synergistically induce activation of MKK4 and JNK in the brain, leading to over-activation of these kinases and neurological injuries. To test our hypothesis, we examined the effect of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) immunization alone or in combination with PY on activation of MKK4 and JNK induced by stress. We found that KLH immunization alone had a small effect on MKK4 or JNK activity but it significantly enhanced and prolonged activation of these kinases induced by stress, from a few hours to several days. Additionally, KLH immunization caused activation of p38MAPK. PY treatment further enhanced and prolonged activation of these kinases induced by stress in combination with KLH immunization and triggered activation of caspase-3. Our current studies suggest that stress, vaccination, and PY may synergistically act on multiple stress-activated kinases in the brain to cause neurological impairments in GWI.
HEX induced a Cmax of 31.9 +/- 18.4 micrograms/l and an AUC of 1511 +/- 923 micrograms/min x l in stage I, of 36.7 +/- 12.3 micrograms/l and 1938 +/- 903 micrograms/min x l in stage II (ns). GHRH + PD induced a Cmax of 33.8 +/- 14.6 micrograms/l and an AUC of 2072 +/- 1233 micrograms/min x l in stage I, of 29.6 +/- 15.6 micrograms/l and 1901 +/- 1252 micrograms/min x l in stage II (ns). ARG + E2 induced a Cmax of 17.8 +/- 7 micrograms/l and an AUC of 1157 +/- 505 micrograms/min x l in stage I, of 15.6 +/- 11.6 micrograms/l and 649 +/- 452 micrograms/min x l in stage II (ns). The Cmax of HEX was higher than that of ARG + E2 in both stages I and II (p < 0.05); AUC of HEX, was higher than that of ARG + E2 only in stage II (p < 0.01); the Cmax and the AUC of GHRH + PD were higher than those of ARG + E2 both in stage I (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) and in stage II (p < 0.05). No difference, neither in the extent of GH response to HEX and GHRH + PD nor in that to stimuli between subjects and controls, was found. HEX has given 32% false positives in stage I and 17% in stage II, GHRH + PD 12% and 15%, while ARG + E2 provided 20% in stage I and 32% in stage II. On the whole, specificity was 76% for HEX and ARG + E2 and 89% for GHRH + PD.
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A-58-year old man presented with fluctuating ptosis and dysphagia. When he was 53 years old, he developed oral candidiasis and serum human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA was detected. After starting highly active antiretroviral therapy, serum HIV RNA became undetectable. Neurological examination revealed ptosis and bulbar symptoms. Myasthenia gravis was comfirmed by a positive edrophonium test, showing 20% decrement of the compound muscle action potential on repetitive stimulation. Anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies were negative and anti-muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibodies were positive. The chest CT scan was normal. He experienced transient clinical remission with pyridostigmine bromide and prednisolone. However relapse occurred after he returned to work. Persistent clinical remission was first observed after cyclosporin administration. There are eleven reports in which patients had concomitant myasthenia gravis and HIV infection. Most of those cases were benign in clinical course and required only anticholinesterase therapy. In our case, however, anti-MuSK antibodies were positive, and symptoms of myasthenia gravis remained despite prednisolone administration. Cyclosporin is directly active against HIV, and thus, cyclosporine therapy may be helpful in patients with concomitant myasthenia gravis and HIV infection.
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Since their return from the first Persian Gulf War, some veterans have complained of a variety of symptoms that were designated as "Gulf War Illness" (GWI). Among other factors, pyridostigmine, used as a prophylaxis treatment against intoxication by nerve agents, has been proposed by many authors as a cause of late social and/or cognitive dysfunction related to GWI. One of the hypotheses placed to explain these behavioural disorders is that operational stress has modified the side effects of pyridostigmine given to soldiers. In an attempt to establish an experimental model of GWI to evaluate the long-term behavioural effects of pyridostigmine administered in stressful conditions, we have developed a new model of repeated stress based on the pole-climbing avoidance technique. We used it to evaluate the effects of pyridostigmine treatment combined to repeated stress over the months following the end of the treatment. We observed that this stress induces impulsiveness and aggressiveness in adult male rat. Moreover, pyridostigmine treatment administered daily 30 min before each stressful session amplifies these behavioural disorders and induces long-term learning dysfunction and slight but significant decrease in phosphocholine level in hippocampus. This suggests that repeated administration of pyridostigmine combined to pole-climbing avoidance (PCA) stress conditions can induce adverse effects in rat central nervous system.
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We examined 148 EEG recordings from 118 patients affected with myasthenia gravis (35 males and 83 females, aged 17-82, with illness durations between 1 month and 24 years). The cases were clinically evaluated according to Ossermann's classification at the time of EEG recording. EEG patterns were subdivided into normal, diffuse or focal slow abnormalities, or epileptiform patterns. Of the 118 patients, 104 had normal EEG recordings and 14 had at least one abnormal recording (8 diffuse slow abnormalities, 6 focal slow abnormalities). The EEG findings were not correlated with clinical parameters (thymic pathology, respiratory incidents, drug treatment, etc.). One patient (whose EEG recordings were normal) showed an isolated epileptic fit and another patient was affected by epilepsy. A possible relationship between the two diseases is discussed.
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Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of myasthenia gravis and a prophylactic pre-treatment for organophosphate nerve agent poisoning. Current methods for evaluating nerve agent treatments include enzymatic studies and mammalian models. Rapid whole animal screening tools for assessing the effects of nerve agent pre-treatment and post-exposure drugs represent an underdeveloped area of research. We used zebrafish as a model for acute and chronic developmental exposure to PB and two related carbamate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, neostigmine bromide (NB) and physostigmine (PS). Lethal doses and gross morphological phenotypes resulting from exposure to sub-lethal doses of these compounds were determined. Quantitative analyses of motility impairment and AChE enzyme inhibition were used to determine optimal dosing conditions for evaluation of the effects of carbamate exposures on neuronal development; ~50% impairment of response to startle stimuli and >50% inhibition of AChE activity were observed at 80 mMPB, 20 mM NB and 0.1 mM PS. PB induced stunted somite length, but no other phenotypic effects were observed. In contrast, NB and PS induced more severe phenotypic morphological defects than PB as well as neurite outgrowth mislocalization. Additionally, NB induced mislocalization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, resulting in impaired synapse formation. Taken together, these data suggest that altered patterns of neuronal connectivity contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of carbamates and demonstrate the utility of the zebrafish model for distinguishing subtle structure-based differential effects of AChE inhibitors, which include nerve agents, pesticides and drugs.
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A series of 11C-labeled analogs of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor pyridostigmine have been synthesized for evaluation as new potential positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents for heart AChE. The appropriate precursors for radiolabeling were slightly modified from commercial reagents. The new tracers [11C]pyridostigmine (1), [11C]para-pyridostigmine (2) and [11C]ortho-pyridostigmine (3) were prepared by N-[11C]methylation of the precursors using [11C]methyl triflate. Pure target compounds were isolated by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification procedure with 60-85% radiochemical yields (decay corrected to end of bombardment), and a synthesis time of 10-15 min. The initial PET dynamic studies of compounds (1-3) in rat heart showed rapid heart uptake and blood pool clearance to give high quality heart images. These results suggest the new tracers delineate the heart very clearly and could be potential heart AChE imaging agents.
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An estimate of the amplitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (V) has been proposed as a noninvasive measure of parasympathetic activity. This experiment monitored V in response to a subclinical dose of pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) and a pharmacological challenge of atropine sulfate (ATR). Twelve male rhesus macaques received 200 micrograms/kg of PYR 30 min prior to an injection of 0, 14, 44, or 140 micrograms/kg ATR. The decrease in V after both the 44 and 140 micrograms/kg ATR doses was similar to the response to ATR alone in a previous experiment. The 14 micrograms/kg dose of ATR did not significantly decrease V in this experiment, which is in contrast with the large decrease of V after ATR alone in a previous experiment. Neither drug affected respiration. The dose of ATR which would be effective in causing a 30% decrease of V in the presence of PYR was estimated to be 18.3 micrograms/kg of ATR. This is twice the dose of ATR calculated to have the same effect without PYR. The attenuated response of V after a pharmacological challenge of ATR may be used to quantify the latent muscarinic effects from exposure to anticholinesterase agents. The attenuated response to ATR may also be useful for evaluating the return of normal cholinergic function after disruption by cholinesterase inhibitors.
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition has been described as the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP)-evoked toxicity. OPs represent a human health threat, because chronic exposure to low doses can damage the developing brain, and acute exposure can produce long-lasting damage to adult brains, despite post-exposure medical countermeasures. Although the main mechanism of OP toxicity is AChE inhibition, several lines of evidence suggest that OPs also act by other mechanisms. We hypothesized that rat neural progenitor cells extracted on embryonic day 14.5 would be affected by constant inhibition of AChE from chronic exposure to OP or pyridostigmine (a reversible AChE blocker) during differentiation. In this work, the OP paraoxon decreased cell viability in concentrations >50 μM, as measured with the MTT assay; however, this effect was not dose-dependent. Reduced viability could not be attributed to blockade of AChE activity, since treatment with 200 µM pyridostigmine did not affect cell viability, even after 6 days. Although changes in protein expression patterns were noted in both treatments, the distribution of differentiated phenotypes, such as the percentages of neurons and glial cells, was not altered, as determined by flow cytometry. Since paraoxon and pyridostigmine each decreased neurite outgrowth (but did not prevent differentiation), we infer that developmental patterns may have been affected.
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This study shows increased reporting of neurological type symptoms in Gulf War veterans, but no evidence for increased neurological effects based on objective physical signs. There may be a number of factors, including information bias, relating to increased neurological type symptom reporting in veterans.
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In man the GH response to GHRH is variable within and between subjects. Pyridostigmine (PD), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, has been shown to reduce the variability of the GH response to GHRH in normal subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the existence of either inter- or intraindividual variability in the GH response to GHRH in type 1 diabetic patients. Moreover, we investigated the effect of PD on such variability in the same patients. Seven (4 females-3 males) nonobese type 1 diabetic patients underwent two experiments performed in consecutive days according to a single-blind protocol: 1) 120 mg oral PD 60 min before iv injection of human (h) GHRH-(1-29) NH2, 100 micrograms in 2 ml of sterile water; 2) oral placebo 60 min before iv injection of 100 micrograms hGHRH. The two experiments were then repeated, following the same procedure, one and two weeks after the start of the study. The GH peaks after GHRH were variable within different subjects but also in the same subject on different occasions. However, the mean GH peak levels after GHRH in the three tests were not significantly different (14.2 +/- 3.5, 15.3 +/- 3, 16.5 +/- 6.4 micrograms/L, respectively), the coefficient of variation for each test was 65%, 51.8%, 102.4%, respectively (mean 73.1 +/- 15.1%). The GH response to GHRH was always significantly enhanced by PD administration: the mean GH peak levels in the three tests were 31.9 +/- 7.1, 44.8 +/- 10.4, 49.9 +/- 13.1 micrograms/L, respectively, without significant differences between tests.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Low GH levels, probably due to insulin resistance and increased abdominal fat mass, are well described in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). GH acts as an important ovarian cogonadotropin, and GH disturbances may be an additional pathogenic factor in PCOS. Decreased abdominal fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity during pioglitazone treatment may affect GH secretion.
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Adult patients with active Cushing's syndrome demonstrate a profound suppression of stimulated GH secretion. In the majority of these patients the disruption of GH secretion is normalized within a year after successful treatment of endogenous cortisol excess.
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The effect of neostigmine 0.05 mg kg-1 or pyridostigmine 0.25 mg kg-1 on serum cholinesterase activity was investigated in 20 adult patients undergoing elective surgery. Both drugs produced marked depression of enzymatic activity. The maximal depression was observed in samples taken 5 min after injection. The maximal percentage depression of enzymatic activity was not significantly different in the two drug groups. However, at 30-60 min after injection, the degree of depression was less in the neostigmine group. This may be attributed to the different plasma clearances of neostigmine and pyridostigmine.
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Thymectomy continues to be the treatment of choice for certain patients with myasthenia gravis. As surgical techniques have developed, anesthesiologists have considered the need to adapt anesthetic techniques to improve care of patients undergoing this procedure. We describe the anesthetic management of 2 patients undergoing thymectomy performed with a bilateral thoracoscopic approach. Because it is best to avoid the use of opiates during and after surgery, we performed a bilateral paravertebral thoracic block, inserting the catheters into the paravertebral space on each side to infuse local anesthetics on either side as needed as the operation progressed. Surgery was completed without adverse events and tubes were removed from the tracheas of both patients at the end of the procedures. Bilateral continuous infusion of local anesthetics provided satisfactory analgesia on the following days.
Cerebral inflammation as well as systemic immunological alterations has been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to determine whether spontaneous and mitogen stimulated production of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors in clinically diagnosed patients with AD were unregulated. PBMC were purified from AD patients and from healthy controls. Supernatants were analyzed for cytokine levels by ELISA methods. mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR. Expression of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5 was determined by cytofluorimetric analysis. Both CCR5 and CCR2 expression were increased in AD patients respect to control subjects and the expression of CCR2 and CCR5 was more frequent on CD4+ and less frequent on CD8+ cells. Levels of Th1-type cytokine IFNgamma and chemokine RANTES were increased and levels of Th2-type cytokine IL-4 and chemokine MCP-1 were reduced in AD patients compared with those of control subjects. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide (AChEI)-therapy reduced CCR2, CCR5, RANTES and IFNgamma expression and production in AD patients. CCR5, CCL5/RANTES, CCL2/MCP-1 and IFNgamma expression and production were increased in PBMC treated with amyloid-beta1-42. Addition of AChEI to PBMC suppresses CCL5/RANTES and IFNgamma. The observed patterns of cyto-chemokine involvement strengthen the questions regarding the inflammatory theory in AD, and raise a pathophysiologic role for selective alteration of cyto-chemokine network.
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Serial blood samples from an indwelling catheter were taken before, during and after exercise for analysis of GH (IRMA), lactate (YSI 2300) and haematocrit (micromethod).
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Panic disorder is associated with neuroendocrinological abnormalities, some of which overlap with those seen in major depression. To date, there has been little assessment of the role of cholinergic mechanisms in this disorder.
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This investigation compared the efficacy of diazepam and the water-soluble prodiazepam-avizafone-in sarin poisoning therapy. Guinea pigs, pretreated with pyridostigmine 0.1 mg/kg, were intoxicated with 4LD(50) of sarin (s.c. route) and 1 min after intoxication treated by intramuscular injection of atropine (3 or 33.8 mg/kg), pralidoxime (32 mg/kg) and either diazepam (2 mg/kg) or avizafone (3.5 mg/kg). EEG and pneumo-physiological parameters were simultaneously recorded. When atropine was administered at a dose of 3 mg/kg, seizures were observed in 87.5% of the cases; if an anticonvulsant was added (diazepam (2 mg/kg) or avizafone (3.5 mg/kg)), seizure was prevented but respiratory disorders were observed. At 33.8 mg/kg, atropine markedly increased the seizure threshold and prevented early respiratory distress induced by sarin. When diazepam was administered together with atropine, seizures were not observed but 62.5% of the animals displayed respiratory difficulties. These symptoms were not observed when using avizafone. The pharmacokinetic data showed marked variation of the plasma levels of atropine and diazepam in different antidote combination groups, where groups receiving diazepam exhibited the lowest concentration of atropine in plasma. Taken together, the results indicate that avizafone is suitable in therapy against sarin when an anticonvulsant is judged necessary.
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The influence of the pharmacological prophylaxis with Panpal (pyridostigmine in combination with benaetyzine and trihexyphenidyle) on acetylcholinesterase activity in diaphragm and various parts of brain at 1 and 3 h following non-treated and treated (the oxime HI-6 in combination with atropine) soman poisoning was tested on male rats. While Panpal did not significantly influence the acetylcholinesterase activity in brain following non-treated as well as treated soman poisoning. Panpal increased so many-induced acetylcholinesterase inhibition following non-treated poisoning and decreased the reactivating effect of the oxime HI-6 following treated soman poisoning in diaphragm.
Three women reported that constipation developed when they stopped smoking and improved during transient relapses.
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Pyridostigmine was well tolerated and resulted in significant symptom improvement. Only one significant adverse effect, bradycardia, occurred in a patient with severe cardiac disease.
Follow up evaluations, performed at 1, 3-6, 12, and 24 months, detailed the frequency of ptosis and diplopia and the amount of ocular motor deviation in primary and downward gaze.
A cross-sectional survey.
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A 73-year-old man developed progressive respiratory failure within 24 hours, requiring emergency admission for mechanical ventilation. The cause of the dyspnoea and tachypnoea could not be ascertained by routine medical and neurological examination. Neuromuscular disease or a cerebral lesion was considered in the differential diagnosis, together with a cardiovascular cause.
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We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and electrodiagnostic findings of 17 MG patients (10 MuSK-Ab-positive and 7 MuSK-Ab-negative patients) who underwent electrodiagnostic testing before and after a neostigmine test (NT).
This study investigated the lethal interaction of pyridostigmine bromide (PB), permethrin, and DEET when given to adult male rats by gavage and was separated into two phases. Phase I determined the acute oral lethal dose-response relationship of each compound with the vehicle, propylene glycol. Phase II was divided into two portions: a dose-response study using probit units obtained from phase I [lethal dose (LD) 16, 30, 50, 70, and 84], and an interaction study that contained low levels (calculated LD16, additive LD32) of the two compounds while the concentration of the third compound was varied. Rats were fasted overnight, dosed, and observed for 14 d. A significant increase in lethality occurred when PB, permethrin, and DEET were given concurrently when compared to expected additive values. Furthermore, solutions containing PB and permethrin or PB and DEET also caused a significant increase in lethality when compared to expected additive values. This information suggests that lethality in this study was more than an additive effect.
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Comparison of the GH response to L-dopa with or without pyridostigmine (inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase) pretreatment and insulin response to oral glucose tolerance test in patients with PCOS and matched controls.