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Glucotrol (Glipizide)

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Glucotrol is a medication consists in a class of drugs called sulfonylureas. Glucotrol is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Glucotrol may be used along with diet, exercise and insulin therapy. Glucotrol works by controlling blood sugar levels in your organism.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Glipizide.


Glucotrol is a medication consists in a class of drugs called sulfonylureas.

Glucotrol is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Glucotrol may be used along with diet, exercise and insulin therapy.

Glucotrol is also known as Glipizide, Glytop SR.

Glucotrol works by controlling blood sugar levels in your organism.

Generic name of Glucotrol is Glipizide.

Brand names of Glucotrol are Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL.


Take Glucotrol orally.

Do not chew, divide or crush the tablet. Swallow it whole.

Glucotrol is usually taken before breakfast if it is taken once a day, or before meals if it is taken several times each day.

Take each dose of Glucotrol with a full glass of water.

The dosage and the kind of tablets depend on the disease and its prescribed treatment.

While taking Glucotrol follow diet, medication and exercise routines closely.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Glucotrol suddenly.


If you overdose Glucotrol and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Glucotrol overdosage: hunger, nausea, anxiety, cold sweats, weakness, drowsiness, unconsciousness, coma.


Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Glucotrol are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Glucotrol if you are allergic to Glucotrol components.

Be careful with Glucotrol if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Glucotrol if you have kidney disease, liver disease, thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes, serious infection, illness, or injury.

Be careful with Glucotrol if you take aspirin or another salicylate such as magnesium/choline salicylate (Trilisate), salsalate (Disalcid, others), choline salicylate (Arthropan), magnesium salicylate (Magan) or bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Nuprin, others), ketoprofen (Orudis, Orudis KT, Oruvail), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam), etodolac (Lodine), indomethacin (Indocin), nabumetone (Relafen), oxaprozin (Daypro), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, Aleve) and others; sulfa-based drug such as sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim, Septra), sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin), or sulfasalazine (Azulfidine); monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate) or phenelzine (Nardil); beta-blocker such as propranolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), acebutolol (Sectral), metoprolol (Lopressor) and others; diuretic (water pill) such as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, Hydrodiuril), chlorothiazide (Diuril) and others; steroid medicine such as prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone, others), methylprednisolone (Medrol, others), prednisolone (Prelone, Pediapred, others) and others; phenothiazine such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin, Permitil), prochlorperazine (Compazine), promethazine (Phenergan) and others; phenytoin (Dilantin); isoniazid (Nydrazid); prescription, over-the-counter, or herbal cough, cold, allergy or weight loss medications.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Glucotrol suddenly.

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Animal research laboratory.

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Thirty-five patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) were treated and followed up for 24 weeks. Six of whom were managed with diet and/or metformin, nine received glibenclamide, twelve had a combination of metformin and glibenclamide, while the remaining eight patients received metformin and/or some other type of sulphonylurea (chlorpropamide or glipizide). By an analysis of variance, the different drug regimes showed equivalent glycaemic controlling effects, but the influence on dyslipidaemia was variable within the treatment groups, while these changes were insignificant between the groups. It is thus concluded that commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agents do not adversely affect plasma lipid levels in Nigerian patients with NIDDM.

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The risk of hypoglycaemia may differ among sulphonylureas (SUs), but evidence from head-to-head comparisons is sparse. Performing a network meta-analysis to use indirect evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we compared the relative risk of hypoglycaemia with newer generation SUs when added to metformin.

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adenosine diphosphate induced human platelet aggregation was inhibited by gliclazide in high concentrations (0.5--2.0 mg/ml). In the same concentration range tolbutamide exhibited a slightly less pronounced inhibitory effect. Collagininduced human platelet aggregation was inhibited by gliclazide, glipizide and tolbutamide in a concentration range of 0.5--2.0 mg/ml. Gliclazide had a similar effect on rabbit platelets. In vivo studies: Both acute and seven days administration of gliclazide to rabbits resulted in prolonged primary and total hemostatic plug formation time both in arterioles and venules. Similar results were obtained with tolbutamide and glipizide. Experiments with laser-induced platelet plug formation in the rabbit ear chamber demonstrated that 100 mg gliclazide/kg body weight and 25 mg gliclazide/kg body weight during 7 days significantly reduced the number of platelet emboli formed during 10 minutes after laser injury.

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To evaluate the effect of sulphonylurea on in vivo tissue uptake of glucose, the arterial injection tissue-sampling technique of Oldendorf was used to measure the glucose uptake of brain; liver; subcutaneous fat; and of three skeletal muscles, the masseter, femoris and soleus. Rats gavaged with glipizide 5 mg/kg daily for 5 days were compared to vehicle-treated rats. The serum glucose levels at the time of the experiment were identical in the two groups (10.36 +/- 0.42 mmol/l vs 10.38 +/- 0.36 mmol/l). Glipizide treatment did not result in an increase in glucose uptake by the various tissues studied. It is concluded that, under physiological conditions in non-fasted rats, sulphonylureas do not significantly alter tissue uptake of glucose.

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The pharmacokinetics of and response to glipizide were studied in six insulin-independent diabetics by radioimmunoassay for glipizide and insulin. Blood glucose was also monitored. Beside control (off glipizide) the patients were studied when given 10 mg glipizide either as a single daily dose or divided into two doses. The peak drug concentration was reached on an average within 1.8-2.3 h. The AUCs did not differ between the two dosage regimens. The mean elimination half-life was 4.7 +/- 0.4 h, Vd 17.0 +/- 2.6 l, and the calculated total clearance 41.6 +/- 4.3 ml/min (mean +/- s.e.m.). In one patient a more than two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was obvious. The once or twice daily dosage regimens did not differ significantly in their ability to reduce blood glucose, but the overall efficacy of the therapy was poor in these patients. The maximal efficacy of a single 10-mg dose of glipizide to reduce blood glucose was maintained at the same level between 1.5 and 8 h despite the continued rapid falling of serum glipizide concentration over this period.

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Glipizide is mainly absorbed in the proximal areas of the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of this study was formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive films to prolong the stay of drug in its absorption area. Glipizide was formulated in a mucoadhesive film that could be retained in the stomach for prolonged intervals. Polymeric films were designed with various compositions of hydroxypropyl cellulose and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400). Properties of the mucoadhesive film such as tensile strength, percentage elongation, swelling index, moisture content, pH and viscosity of polymeric dispersion, film thickness, content uniformity and mucoadhesion in a simulated gastric environment were characterized. In addition, percentage drug retained in stomach mucosa was estimated using a simulated dynamic stomach system as a function of time. Increase in hydroxypropyl cellulose concentration resulted in a higher tensile strength and elongation at break, while increase in concentration of PEG 400 was reflected in a decrease in tensile strength and increase of elongation at break. Glipizide/hydroxypropyl cellulose/PEG 400 (2.5:1:0.5) (GF5) was found to be the optimal composition for a novel mucoadhesive stomach formulation that showed good peelability, relatively high swelling index, moderate tensile strength, and stayed on rat stomach mucosa up to 8 h. In vivo testing of the mucoadhesive films with glipizide demonstrated a potential hypoglycemic effect.

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New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a common complication after renal transplantation. There are limited available oral drugs to treat hyperglycaemia in this population owing to reduced renal function, potential interactions with immunosuppressive drugs and adverse effects such as hypoglycaemic events that may increase the cardiovascular risk. This study was initiated to investigate efficacy and safety of sitagliptin treatment that may represent a novel alternative in renal transplant recipients.

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A patient with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) who had previously developed secondary failure while taking a maximal dosage of glipizide was switched to glyburide 5 mg/d. The patient initially experienced adequate glycemic control while taking glyburide, but subsequently experienced deterioration in glycemic control. This necessitated gradual increases in the dosage of glyburide until the maximum dosage of 20 mg/d was reached. Because the patient's diabetic control did not improve with this dosage of glyburide, she decided independently to increase the dosage further. She ingested an average daily dose of 37.7 mg of glyburide over the 18 days that preceded her clinic visit without experiencing any glyburide-related adverse effects.

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Probe substrates, phenacetin (CYP1A2), and tolbutamide (CYP2C9) were incubated with human liver microsomes and the metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization in positive or negative mode. Glipizide was used as the internal standard in both modes. The inhibitory potential of fluoroquinolones on CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 was investigated.

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Glipizide was detected in all treated cats. Mean +/- SD transdermal absorption was 20 +/- 14% of oral absorption. Mean maximum glipizide concentration was reached 5.0 +/- 3.5 hours after oral and 16.0 +/- 4.5 hours after transdermal administration. Elimination half-life was variable (16.8 +/- 12 hours orally and 15.5 +/- 15.3 hours transdermally). Plasma glucose concentrations decreased in all treated cats, compared with concentrations in control cats. Plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower 2 to 6 hours after oral administration, compared with after transdermal application; concentrations were similar between treatment groups and significantly lower than for control cats 10 to 24 hours after treatment.

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Serial sampling methods have been used for rat pharmacokinetic (PK) studies for over 20 years. Currently, it is still common to take 200-250 μL of blood at each timepoint when performing a PK study in rats and using serial sampling. While several techniques have been employed for collecting blood samples from rats, there is only limited published data to compare these methods. Recently, microsampling (≤ 50 μL) techniques have been reported as an alternative process for collecting blood samples from rats.

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RAW 264 and microglial cell responses to Aβ1-42, αSN, PrP82-146 and LPS are dependent upon CD14 expression. Glimepiride induced the shedding of CD14 from cells by activation of GPI-PLC and consequently reduced cytokine production in response to Aβ42, αSN, PrP82-146 and LPS. These results suggest that glimepiride acts as a novel anti-inflammatory agent that could modify the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

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Systematic review. Quality assessment used the Cochrane risk of bias score.

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Ten Type 2 diabetics were examined during long-term treatment, at two dosage levels, with chlorpropamide once daily and glipizide t.i.d. Drug concentrations were measured by gas chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography, respectively, plasma insulin (IRI) by radio-immunoassay, and blood glucose enzymatically. Both drugs gave continuous sulfonylurea exposure, even at the lower dosage, and the mean plasma concentrations were almost doubled after the increase in dose. Neither the IRI nor the glucose response to meals showed any therapeutic improvement following the increase in chlorpropamide dosage. The lower dosage of glipizide produced better glucose utilization than chlorpropamide. On the other hand, the increased dose of glipizide led to impairment instead of further improvement. As this was associated with enhanced rather than reduced IRI levels, the impairment might have been due to increased peripheral insulin resistance. Thus, glipizide offers a therapeutic advantage over chlorpropamide, but its effectiveness may be restricted not only by limitations set by the disease, but also by counter-regulatory mechanisms that develop during continuous exposure to sulfonylureas at high levels.

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A total of 93 SD rats were purchased from Guangdong animal monitoring and established unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model to simulate renal interstitial fibrosis. Forty rats in the experimental group received glipizide intraperitoneal injection for a week at 30 days after modeling, while another 40 rats in the control group received a normal saline injection. The last 10 rats were treated as blank group. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was applied to test renal interstitial fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect fibronectin expression in glomerular and renal tubules. AKT signaling pathway related factors expression was measured by Western blot to determine AKT signal activation.

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To compare the risk of serious hypoglycemia associated with the use of individual sulfonylureas in older people.

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The purpose of this review is to discuss the evolution of OROS technology and examine the many therapeutic areas where OROS products are being used.

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In patients with T2DM, combination therapy with glipizide and ARBE resulted in moderately lowering HbA1c and LDL-C levels compared with glipizide alone.

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Three muscle biopsies were performed in 53 overt type 2 diabetics over a period of approximately 2 years. At baseline, 21 (40%) had an increased capillary basement membrane width in muscle. Thirty-five patients received glipizide and 18 received placebo. In the patients receiving placebo, the mean of the muscle capillary basement membrane width increased from 158.7 +/- 11.5 nm (SEM) to 170.9 +/- 14.7 nm (P = NS), but in those receiving glipizide the value decreased from 192.9 +/- 13.2 nm to 161.0 +/- 10.2 nm (P = 0.02). Plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1 decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) after 2 years in patients receiving glipizide. In 15, mean glycosylated hemoglobin A1 reached a normal range, and mean basement membrane width decreased to a level close to that found in subjects without diabetes (P = NS). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that effective response to oral medication can decrease the basement membrane thickening, suggesting that diabetic microangiopathy is not necessarily progressive.

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A retrospective cohort study design of patients with type 2 diabetes treated at 3 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers and 1 Department of Defense Medical Center was utilized. One hundred percent of patients receiving glyburide-metformin tablets were screened for inclusion. Patients with at least 6 months of prior SU+Met combination therapy and a baseline A1C measured within 35 days prior to or 3 days after switch to glyburide-metformin tablets were included. At least one documented follow-up A1C at >or=90 days after the switch to glyburide-metformin was required for inclusion. Glycemic control, complications, lipid parameters, concomitant medications, and weight were analyzed prior to and following the switch to glyburide-metformin.

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Treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with pioglitazone changes abdominal fat in the opposite direction as treatment with glipizide. To determine whether these two medications affect adipose tissue meal fatty acid storage differently we studied 19 T2DM treated with either pioglitazone (n = 8) or glipizide (n = 11) and 11 non-DM control subjects matched for age, BMI, abdominal and leg fat. A breakfast mixed meal containing [1-(14)C]triolein was given and abdominal and femoral subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue biopsies were collected 6 and 24 h later to measure meal fatty acid storage. The portion of meal fatty acids stored in upper body sc and lower body sc adipose tissue did not differ between non-DM and T2DM subjects either at 6 or 24 h. Likewise, meal fatty acid storage did not differ between the T2DM participants treated with pioglitazone or glipizide. We conclude that meal fatty acid storage in upper body and lower body sc adipose tissue is not abnormal in T2DM patients treated with pioglitazone or glipizide.

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The oral ethanol loading test (0.5 g per kg b.m. given as 40% solution) was carried out in 5 groups, each of 10 patients with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes before and after 10 days of treatment with one of the following sulphonylurea derivatives: tolbutamide 0.5 t.i.d., chlorpropamide 0.5 once daily morning, glibornuride 0.025 t.i.d, glibenclamide 0.005 t.i.d. and glipizide 0.005 t.i.d. The response to alcohol (facial flush, heart rate, blood pressure) were compared, and blood concentration of ethanol, acetaldehyde, pyruvate, lactate, carbonates as well as blood pH, pO2 and pCO2 were determined in fasting state and during 6 hours after alcohol ingestion. In all patients the family history of diabetes and the presence and degree of vascular complications were registered. Evident flushing phenomenon was observed in 6 patients treated with chlorpropamide, in 3 treated with tolbutamide, in 2 treated with glibenclamide, in one receiving glibornuride and in none treated with glipizide. All drugs caused a greater rise of blood ethanol and acetaldehyde levels in relation to the control tests, but the difference reached statistical significance only in the group receiving chlorpropamide. Moreover, patients (pooled) with positive thermographic response had also significantly higher blood levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde during the second test. The ratio of acetaldehyde to ethanol concentration in blood (mumol:mmol) was not significantly changed in any group indicating parallel impairment of both steps of ethanol metabolism. All studied drugs intensified to a similar degree the alcohol-induced hypoglycaemia, but had no significant effect on the decrease of blood pyruvate level neither on the increase of blood lactate level. They didn't change the post-alcohol decrease of blood bicarbonate and pH, and didn't modify the behaviour of partial gas pressure. There was also no difference between pooled groups of patients with positive and negative thermographic reaction with respect to family history of diabetes and frequency and intensity of vascular complications. It is concluded that in patients with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes the second generation sulphonylurea derivatives are associated with lower risk of alcohol intolerance in case of its incidental ingestion in small amounts. The hypothesis of association of positive thermographic reaction to alcohol during treatment with sulphonylurea derivatives with more frequent occurrence of diabetes in family members and lower tendency to vascular complications was not confirmed.

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Veterans who initiated metformin or buy glucotrol sulfonylurea therapy for diabetes. Patients with chronic kidney disease or serious medical illness were excluded.

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In total, 53.1% of patients completed 104 weeks of treatment. After the greater initial decrease (0-18 weeks) in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) with glipizide, the 18-104-week HbA1c coefficient of failure (CoF) was lower with dapagliflozin (0.13%/year) than with glipizide (0.59%/year), resulting in significant dapagliflozin versus glipizide differences of -0.46%/year (95% CI -0.60,-0.33; p = 0.0001) for CoF and -0.18%(-2.0 mmol/mol) [95% CI -0.33(-3.6),-0.03(-0.3); p = 0.021] for 104-week HbA1c. Dapagliflozin produced sustained buy glucotrol reductions in weight and systolic blood pressure, whereas glipizide increased weight and systolic blood pressure, giving 104-week dapagliflozin versus glipizide differences of -5.1 kg (95% CI: -5.7,-4.4) and -3.9 mmHg (95% CI: -6.1,-1.7), respectively. Over 104 weeks, the hypoglycaemia rate was 10-fold lower with dapagliflozin than with glipizide (4.2 vs. 45.8%), whereas patient proportions with events suggestive of genital infection and of urinary tract infection (UTI) were greater with dapagliflozin (14.8 and 13.5%, respectively) than with glipizide (2.9 and 9.1%, respectively).

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In a screening survey of women and men 47-54 years old for detection of glucose intolerance (GI), with 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT), 25 subjects with GI were randomly selected for a therapeutic trial for normalization of the GI. A control group of 18 GI subjects was chosen randomly from the same health survey and given no treatment for 5-10 months; no significant changes in OGTT variables, body mass index, blood pressure or blood lipids were found in this group during follow-up. The treatment group was given advice concerning a low-sucrose, low-fat, high-fiber and energy-restricted (when overweight) diet and also concerning exercise - single-handed (16 subjects) or in an exercise group (9 subjects). The GI improved Generic Cialis Online Cheap in the 25 treated subjects after 6 months of this therapy. Thus the total area under the glucose curve and the 1-h and the 2-h glucose values had decreased, the mean 2-h glucose value was restored to normal (less than 7.0 mmol X l-1) and 48% of the treated subjects had a normal 2-h glucose value. Body mass index, systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides were also reduced at the follow-up. The 6-month result was similar in the subgroup of nine GI subjects who followed the dietary advice and exercised in a group for at least one hour per week during at least three months. Physical working capacity was increased, although non-significantly. Glipizide, 1.25 mg daily, was added at breakfast to ten GI-subjects who still had pathological 2-h glucose values after 6 months of dietary and exercise treatment. After a further 6 months of treatment of these 10 subjects, the total glucose area and the 2-h glucose value were reduced, while the mean 2-h glucose value had not required the normal level. Body mass index was unchanged. Another four subjects in this subgroup now showed a normal 2-h glucose value. In conclusion, the 2-h glucose value was restored to normal in totally 64% of all treated GI subjects after short-term treatment with a diet, exercise and, in some cases, added glipizide.

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Data on oral antidiabetic drugs were derived from two pharmaceutical marketing databases Zocor Generic Equivalent from IMS Health, the National Prescription Audit Plus and the National Disease and Therapeutic Index.

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Onychomycosis and dermatomycoses can result in serious complications in patients with underlying chronic diseases such as diabetes. To avoid these complications, these dermatological disorders need to be treated efficiently, for example with the triazole antifungal itraconazole. Itraconazole can inhibit the metabolism of drugs by CYP 3A4 and therefore might Zyrtec 60 Mg affect the efficacy of antidiabetic agents.

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We used healthcare data to conduct nested case-control studies of serious hypoglycaemia (i.e. resulting in hospital admission or emergency department treatment) in persons taking glipizide or glyburide, and calculated adjusted overall and time-stratified odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also characterized the in vitro inhibition of CYP enzymes by statins, fenofibrate and Motilium Tablets glipizide using fluorometric CYP450 inhibition assays, and estimated area under the concentration-time curve ratios (AUCRs) for the drug pairs.

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An early defect in subjects with non-insulin-dependent Geodon 120 Mg diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and the preceding phase of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a reduction in early insulin release and hence a prolonged elevation of postprandial blood glucose. We therefore assessed whether a rapidly acting sulphonylurea (glipizide 5 mg 0.5 h before a test meal) could correct these disturbances in 38 IGT/NIDDM subjects, whose early insulin release and postprandial blood glucose elevations remained unimproved after 10 weeks of dietary regulation. We also assessed whether the efficacy of glipizide was dependent upon the ambient blood glucose concentration, and if early systemic availability of the drug was important for the blood glucose lowering effect. A single dose of glipizide normalized early insulin release and hence reduced the postprandial blood glucose increase that was not lowered by dietary regulation. The efficacy of glipizide was dependent upon the early systemic availability of the drug, but early systemic availability and efficacy were independent of the extent of blood glucose elevation, at least within a range of 6-12 mmol.l-1 of fasting blood glucose.

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In multivariable analyses controlling for patient characteristics and indication for antimicrobial drug use, clarithromycin (odds ratio [OR], 3.96 [95% CI, 2.42-6.49]), levofloxacin (OR, 2.60 [95% CI, 2.18-3.10]), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (OR, 2.56 [95% CI, 2.12-3.10]), metronidazole (OR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.28-3.47]), and ciprofloxacin (OR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.33-1.97]) were associated with higher rates of hypoglycemia compared with a panel of noninteracting antimicrobials. The number needed to harm ranged from 71 for clarithromycin to 334 for ciprofloxacin. Patient factors associated with hypoglycemia included older age, female sex, black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, higher comorbidity, and prior hypoglycemic episode. In 2009, 28.3% of patients prescribed a sulfonylurea filled a prescription for 1 of these 5 antimicrobials, which were associated with 13.2% of all hypoglycemia events in patients taking sulfonylureas. The treatment of subsequent hypoglycemia adds $30.54 in additional Medicare costs to each prescription of 1 of those 5 antimicrobials given Arcoxia 80 Mg Pret to patients taking sulfonylureas.

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The moderate inhibition observed for clopidogrel bioactivation may not present a significant risk for drug-drug interactions between sulfonylureas and clopidogrel. While these findings Serevent 50 Mg bode well for multidrug therapies involving sulfonylureas and clopidogrel, clinical investigations are needed to define the clinical risk and benefit for combining these agents for the management of cardiovascular events in diabetic patients.

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Acetylcholine (P < 0.01) and sodium nitroprusside (P < 0.01) both caused an increase in FBF. There was no significant difference in Zovirax Green Tablet vascular responses to acetylcholine (P > 0.05) or sodium nitroprusside (P > 0.05) following K(+)-ATP channel blockade.

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To study the long term cardiovascular effects of oral antidiabetic agents in non- Cymbalta Increased Dosage diabetic patients with insulin resistance.

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In this study, the amorphization of glipizide was systematically investigated through high-energy ball milling at different temperatures. The results of solid-state amorphization through milling indicated that glipizide Zetia Drug underwent direct crystal-to-glass transformation at 15 and 25°C and crystal-to-glass-to-crystal conversion at 35°C; hence, milling time and temperature had significant effects on the amorphization of glipizide, which should be effectively controlled to obtain totally amorphous glipizide. Solid forms of glipizide were detailedly characterized through analyses of X-ray powder diffraction, morphology, thermal curves, vibrational spectra, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. The physical stability of solid forms was investigated under different levels of relative humidity (RH) at 25°C. Forms I and III are kinetically stable and do not form any new solid-state forms at various RH levels. By contrast, Form II is kinetically unstable, undergoing direct glass-to-crystal transformation when RH levels higher than 32.8%. Therefore, stability investigation indicated that Form II should be stored under relatively dry conditions to prevent rapid crystallization. High temperatures can also induce the solid-state transformation of Form II; the conversion rate increased with increasing temperature.

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Mauriac syndrome is characterized by growth impairment, Cushingoid features, and hepatomegaly in patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We report a novel presentation of Mauriac syndrome in a 9-year-old girl who was diagnosed with neonatal diabetes at 3 months of age due to the p.R201C mutation in KCNJ11. She was initially treated successfully with glipizide at a dose of 0.85 mg/kg/day but after being lost to follow-up and having improper adjustment in dose over many years, the recent dose of 0.6 mg/kg/day appears to have been insufficient for glycemic control but enough to maintain a low level of C-peptide and prevent diabetic ketoacidosis. With proper insulin administration, all presenting clinical characteristics were resolved within 1 month. A review of the literature relating to clinical manifestations of Mauriac syndrome in children with diabetes was performed and included in this report for comparison with our Mestinon Alcohol patient. While Mauriac syndrome has been traditionally associated with T1DM, the presence of Mauriac syndrome should not be excluded in other types of diabetes mellitus.

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Hypoglycemic sulfonylureas (e.g., glibenclamide, glipizide, and tolbutamide) exert their stimulatory effect on excitatory cells by closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. These channels are heteromultimers composed with a 4:4 stoichiometry of an inwardly rectifying K+ channel (KIR) subunit 6.x plus a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR). SUR1/KIR6.2 reconstitutes the neuronal/pancreatic beta-cell channel, whereas SUR2A/KIR6.2 and SUR2B/KIR6.1 (or KIR6.2) are proposed to reconstitute the cardiac and the vascular smooth muscle-type KATP channels, respectively. SUR2A and SUR2B are splice variants of a single gene differing only in their C-terminal 42 amino acids. Affinities of sulfonylureas for rat SUR2A, rat or human SUR2B, and a SUR2 chimera containing the C-terminal 42 amino acids of SUR1 did not differ significantly, implying that the C terminus does not form part of the binding pocket. Consistent with these findings, reconstituted SUR2A/KIR6.2 and SUR2B/KIR6.2 channels revealed similar sensitivities for glibenclamide and tolbutamide. Dissociation constants of sulfonylureas for SUR2A and SUR2B were 10- to 400-fold higher than for SUR1, however, amazingly the benzoic acid derivative meglitinide did not show lower affinity for SUR2 isoforms. Potencies of glibenclamide, glipizide, tolbutamide, and meglitinide to inhibit activity of SUR1/KIR6.2 and SUR2B/KIR6.2 channels were 3- to 6-fold higher than binding affinities of these drugs with concentration-inhibition relations being significantly steeper (Hill coefficients 1.23 Lexapro Reviews By Patients -1.32) than binding curves (Hill coefficients 0.93-1.06). The data establish that the C terminus of SURs does not affect sulfonylurea affinity and sensitivity. We conclude that occupation of one of the four SUR sites per channel complex is sufficient to induce KATP channel closure.

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Rheological studies were made on the blood of 12 diabetic patients after a period of poor diabetic control (HbA1 12.6 +/- 0.7% (mean +/- SD); mean home capillary blood glucose level 11.7 +/- 1.2 mmol/l), and after at least three months of improved control (HbA1 9.1 +/- 0.4%, p < 0.01; mean home capillary blood glucose level 9.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/l). There were significant decreases in plasma fibrinogen levels (4.1 +/- 0.6 to 3.7 +/- 0.6 g/l, p < 0.01), plasma viscosity (1.31 +/- 0.1 to 1.25 +/- 0.04, p < 0.001), and whole blood viscosity at low (22.8 +/- 2.7 to 20.2 +/- 2.9, p < 0.01) and high shear rates (3.4 +/- 0.2 to 3.1 +/- 0.2, p < 0.01). Ten diabetics with clinically evident complications were matched with diabetics of similar age, sex Flagyl Dosage Diverticulitis , duration and current control of diabetes. There were no significant differences in plasma or whole blood viscosities between the two groups. Hyperviscosity in diabetes seems strongly related to hyperglycaemia and to be influenced by the quality of diabetic control.

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APPROACH is a double-blind randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone with the insulin secretagogue glipizide on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease undergoing clinically indicated coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention are randomized to receive rosiglitazone or glipizide for 18 months using a titration algorithm designed to provide comparable glycemic control between treatment groups. The primary end point is change in percent atheroma volume from baseline to study completion in a nonintervened coronary artery, as measured by intravascular ultrasound. Cardiovascular events are adjudicated by an end point committee.

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Glimepiride is a conveniently administered alternative to other sulphonylureas in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus not well controlled by diet alone. Its possible tolerability advantages and use in combination with other oral antidiabetic drugs require further study. Glimepiride is also reported to reduce exogenous insulin requirements in patients with secondary sulphonylurea failure when administered in combination with insulin.

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A retrospective cohort study was conducted using an academic health center enterprise-wide electronic health record (EHR) system to identify 11,141 patients with type 2 diabetes (4,279 initiators of monotherapy with glyburide, 4,325 initiators of monotherapy with glipizide, and 2,537 initiators of monotherapy with glimepiride), >or=18 years of age with and without a history of coronary artery disease (CAD) and not on insulin or a noninsulin injectable at baseline. The patients were followed for mortality by documentation in the EHR and Social Security Death Index. Multivariable Cox models were used to compare cohorts.

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Our objective was to report the use of continuous infusion octreotide for tight glucose control after accidental sulfonylurea ingestion with severe neurologic dysfunction.

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Mean baseline HbA1c was 9.2% and FPG was 11.4 mmol/l. Rosiglitazone at doses of 1 and 2 mg b.d. plus sulphonylurea produced significant decreases, compared with sulphonylurea plus placebo, in HbA1c (-0.59% and -1.03%, respectively; both P<0.0001) and FPG (1.35 mmol/l and 2.44 mmol/l, respectively; both P<0.0001). Both HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol increased and potentially beneficial decreases in non-esterified fatty acids and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels were seen in both rosiglitazone groups. The overall incidence of adverse experiences was similar in all three treatment groups, with no significant cardiac events, hypoglycaemia or hepatotoxicity.

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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities of Allopolyherbal formulation (APHF) consisting of combinations of three well known medicinal plants used in traditional medicines (Trigonella foenum graceum, Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos) and synthetic oral hypoglycaemic drug (Glipizide-GL). The optimized combination of lyophilized hydro-alcoholic extracts of drugs was 2:2:1 using OGTT model. The optimized PHF was simultaneously administered with GL and optimized using OGTT model in diabetic rats and further studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats for 21 days. The results (serum glucose level, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and body weight) were compared with the standard drug GL (10 mg/kg body wt). The optimized APHF (500+5 mg/kg body wt) has shown significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities. The results were comparable with the standard; even better than the GL (10 mg/kg body wt) alone. The proposed hypothesis has reduced the no. of drug components from eight to three and dose almost 50% of both PHF and GL which fulfil the FDA requirements for export. Thus the developed APHF will be an ideal alternative for the existing hypoglycemic formulations in the market with an additional advantage of hypolipidemic effect and minimizing the cardiovascular risk factors associated with diabetes.

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The appropriate use of second-generation oral hypoglycemic agents is limited by the lack of definitive guidelines for their use in elderly diabetic patients and controversy over relative dosing equivalence. We previously conducted a survey to determine the feasibility and cost of converting diabetic patients from glipizide to glyburide. This new survey provides an extended, 24-month follow-up in 210 patients and focuses on findings in elderly patients. The mean final daily dose of glyburide (11.6 mg) was lower than the preconversion dose of glipizide (18.7 mg) (P < or = 0.0001). One hundred forty-one (67%) patients successfully continued glyburide for 24 months, including 103 (73%) patients who were 65 years of age or older. There was no apparent correlation between age and final dose of glyburide, ability to continue glyburide, or risk of stopping glyburide. The conversion program reduced the mean daily dose after switching from glipizide to glyburide, which was preserved throughout the observation period. The program also conferred a 49% savings in the projected 2-year expenditures for second-generation oral hypoglycemic agents.

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When hyperglycemia is profound, increases in PAI-1 are also profound. Control of hyperglycemia with either glipizide GITS, an insulin secretagogue, or metformin as monotherapy comparably ameliorates elevated PAI-1.

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A method for the separation of six selected antihyperglycemic (antidiabetic) drugs (tolbutamide, gliclazide, glimepiride, glibenclamide, repaglinide, and glipizide) was developed with use of micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Two non-ionic poly(ethylene glycol)-based surfactants Genapol X-080 and Triton X-114 (reduced) were studied as neutral pseudostationary phases. High alkaline pH 10.0 was used to obtain negative charges of separated antidiabetic drugs and non-ionic surfactants were employed for selectivity alteration. Both non-ionic surfactants provided good selectivity at concentration 0.2% (v/v) in sodium borate buffer and the separation of six drugs was obtained within 5min. An on-line preconcentration method based on reversed electrode polarity switching was employed for the determination of antihyperglycemic drugs in blood serum after acetonitrile protein precipitation. The limits of detection ranged from 20.8nmolL(-1) for tolbutamide to 6.5nmolL(-1) for glibenclamide, respectively.

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The effect of gliclazide on platelet activity was investigated and compared to that of tolbutamide and glipizide.

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To identify the effects of co-trimoxazole on the elimination and disposition kinetics of glipizide, eight healthy male volunteers were studied in an unblinded, randomized, cross-over trial with two phases (no treatment or co-trimoxazole 160/800 mg twice a day). During each phase, subjects were treated at home for 7 days with one of the treatment regimens, followed by a 24-hour hospitalization for a single-dose challenge with 10-mg oral glipizide and detailed blood studies. A 7-day washout period was interspersed between the phases. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters were determined and compared using the Student's t-test for paired observations. Glipizide area under the curve (AUC), clearance, and half life for treatment and control phases were 5758 +/- 1874 versus 5176 +/- 1505 micrograms/L/hour (P = .21), 0.41 +/- 0.15 versus 0.45 +/- 0.14 mL/min/kg (P = .27), and 5.13 +/- 2.10 versus 3.95 +/- 1.37 hours (P = .04), respectively. Twenty-four-hour glucose AUCs for treatment and control phases were 112.24 +/- 8.76 versus 114.86 +/- 11.98 mmol/L/hour (P = .55), respectively. The only parameter reaching statistical significance was glipizide half life, but the difference is of doubtful clinical significance because of difficulty in identifying a clear elimination phase in several subjects. It is concluded that co-trimoxazole administration did not significantly alter glipizide disposition and elimination kinetics in this study population.

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We have studied the possible mechanisms underlying the decrease of excitatory transmission induced by glucose deprivation by using electrophysiological recordings in corticostriatal slices. Extracellular field potentials were recorded in the striatum after cortical stimulation; these potentials were progressively reduced by glucose deprivation. The reduction started 5 minutes after the onset of aglycemia. The field potential was fully suppressed after 40 minutes of glucose deprivation. After the washout of the aglycemic solution only a partial recovery was observed. Aglycemia also induced a delayed inward current during single-microelectrode voltage-clamp recordings from spiny neurons. This inward current was coupled with an increased membrane conductance. The A1 adenosine receptor antagonists, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT, 1 micromol/L) and 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (CPX, 300 nmol/L), significantly reduced the aglycemia-induced decrease of field potential amplitude. Moreover, in the presence of CPT and CPX, a full recovery of the field potential amplitude after the interruption of the aglycemic solution was observed. Conversely, these antagonists affected neither the inward current nor the underlying conductance increase produced by glucose deprivation. The ATP-sensitive potassium channel blockers glibenclamide (10 micromol/L) and glipizide (100 nmol/L) had no effect on the aglycemia-induced decrease of the field potential amplitude. We suggest that endogenous adenosine, but not ATP-dependent potassium channels, plays a significant role in the aglycemia-induced depression of excitatory transmission at corticostriatal synapses probably through a presynaptic mechanism. Moreover, adenosine is not involved in the postsynaptic changes induced by glucose deprivation in spiny striatal neurons.

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To examine patient-reported experience of hypoglycaemia, worry about hypoglycaemic symptoms and the impact of hypoglycaemia on patients' quality of life associated with use of sulphonylurea co-administered with metformin.

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Mean daily doses and blood glucose measurements (fasting blood glucose, random blood glucose, hemoglobin A1C) were stratified in 3-month periods from the time the drug therapy was started or the patient first presented to the clinic for a total of 18 months. Long-term glycemic control was defined as fasting blood glucose less than 8.33 mmol/L (150 mg/dL).

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Saxagliptin was well tolerated during the 104-week period; 67.1% of patients receiving saxagliptin vs. 72.6% receiving glipizide had ≥ 1 adverse event (AE), and few patients (4.9% vs. 5.6%) discontinued owing to AEs. Fewer patients treated with saxagliptin experienced hypoglycaemia (3.5% vs. 38.4% with glipizide; difference, -34.9%, 95% CI, -39.8 to -30.0) or confirmed hypoglycaemia (0 vs. 9.1% with glipizide). Weight loss was observed with saxagliptin (-1.5 kg) vs. weight gain with glipizide (+1.3 kg; between-group difference, -2.8 kg, 95% CI, -3.32 kg to -2.20 kg). Change from baseline in HbA1c was -0.41 ± 0.04% with saxagliptin and -0.35 ± 0.04% with glipizide (between-group difference, -0.05%, 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.06%). A post hoc analysis showed that the proportion of patients with baseline HbA1c ≥ 7% who achieved HbA1c < 7% (observed data) at week 104 was 23.1% for saxagliptin + metformin and 22.7% for glipizide + metformin.

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1. The metabolism of gliclazide to hydroxygliclazide has been investigated in Sprague-Dawley rat liver microsomes. 2. The kinetics of hydroxygliclazide formation are consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics (mean (+/- SD, n = 3) apparent K(m) and Vmax = 256 +/- 27 microM and 1.85 +/- 0.10 nmol/ min/mg respectively). 3. Tolbutamide competitively inhibited hydroxygliclazide formation (Ki = 840 microM) and gliclazide competitively inhibited hydroxytolbutamide formation (Ki = 240 microM) with Ki similar to K(m). Therefore gliclazide and tolbutamide may be metabolized by the same enzyme in the rat. In nine livers the formation of hydroxygliclazide correlated with the formation of hydroxytolbutamide (rs = 0.82, p < 0.01). 4. Diclofenac (Ki = 64 microM), phenytoin (Ki = 38 microM), mephenytoin (Ki = 66 microM), glibenclamide (Ki = 14 microM) and glipizide (Ki = 189 microM) were fully competitive inhibitors of gliclazide hydroxylation. The rank order of Ki constants differed for gliclazide and tolbutamide suggesting that gliclazide and tolbutamide hydroxylases are not identical enzymes. 5. Quinine (Ki = 0.3 microM) and quinidine (Ki = 4.3 microM) were partially competitive inhibitors of hydroxygliclazide formation. Hydroxylation of gliclazide was related to the activity of CYP2D1 as assessed by dextrorphan production from dextromethorphan (rs = 0.83, p = 0.01). 6. In the rat gliclazide is metabolized to hydroxygliclazide by at least two cytochrome P450 isoforms, including tolbutamide hydroxylase and 2D1, which have similar affinities for gliclazide.

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Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) in tandem with diode array detection (DAD) has been exploited as an analytical method for the separation and detection of sulfonylurea drugs. The ultimate goal is the development of an assay to detect these drugs or their metabolites in urine as a means of diagnosing sulfonylurea drug abuse. Using a separation buffer consisting of 5 mM borate/5 mM phosphate/75 mM sodium cholate, separation of both the second and third generation sulfonylurea drugs can be achieved. The characteristic absorbance spectra associated with each of the third generation drugs, glipizide and glyburide, allow for their identification in mixtures. Coinjection of glyburide, its primary metabolite, hydroxy glyburide, and glipizide demonstrated that the metabolite was resolved from the parent drug but shared its absorbance spectral properties. MEKC analysis of a series of solid phase-extracted urine samples from patients prescribed glipizide or glyburide, as well as from control patients not ingesting the drug, showed that the parent compounds were difficult to detect in the urine. However, the use of DAD allowed for detection of metabolites in the urine of these patients. With glyburide patients, only primary metabolites were detected, while urine from patients on glipizide showed a series of peaks whose absorbance spectra was consistent with the presence of both primary and secondary metabolites. In addition, the intensity of the metabolite peaks corresponded reasonably well with the respective dose and in vivo time interval associated with the urine collection. This study shows that MEKC with DAD has potential for further exploration as a clinical assay for detecting surreptitious abuse of sulfonylurea drugs.

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The kidney is endowed with ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels) both at the vascular and at the epithelial level. In this study we have characterized the binding of the sulphonylurea glibenclamide, the most widely used blocker of KATP channels, in rat isolated glomeruli. In metabolically intact glomeruli, 3H-glibenclamide labelled two different binding components with affinities of 47 +/- 12 nM and 10 +/- 1 microM and estimated binding capacities of 1.2 +/- 0.1 and 501 +/- 11 pmol/mg protein, respectively. 3H-glibenclamide binding was inhibited differentially by other sulphonylureas (tolbutamide, glibornuride, gliquidone and glipizide) and benzoic acid analogues such as meglitinide, AZ-DF 265 and UL-DF 9. Sulphonylureas interacted with the high affinity component and, in some cases, also with the low affinity component whereas the benzoic acid derivatives inhibited exclusively low affinity glibenclamide binding. Severe metabolic stress affected both components of glibenclamide binding by shifting high affinity binding to the right and reducing the capacity of the low affinity component. Disruption of the cytoskeletal actin filaments by cytochalasin B and D mimicked the effect of metabolic stress on the high affinity component but left the low affinity component unchanged. In crude membranes, the affinity of the first component was again reduced and a major loss of the low affinity sites was observed. The data show that the two binding components of glibenclamide binding in rat isolated glomeruli have very different properties. The high affinity component is not recognized by the benzoic acid derivatives; its affinity is modulated by cell metabolism and the actin component of the cytoskeleton. The low affinity sites are, in their majority, cytosolic. The function and cellular localization of the high affinity sites are under further study.

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Non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) is a major cause of premature morbidity and mortality among adults. Macrovascular disease of coronary and peripheral vessels is the primary cause of death in these patients. Numerous experimental and epidemiologic studies have suggested that hyperinsulinemia accelerates the development of atherosclerosis. In experimental models, insulin promotes diet-induced lesion development and overrides lesion regression and estrogen protection against atherosclerosis. Local hyperinsulinemia induced by selected arterial infusion accelerates atherosclerosis in the perfused artery. Insulin has been shown to stimulate subintimal smooth muscle and fibroblast cells in culture, and to increase the uptake and local synthesis of lipid by these cells. Insulin may also induce inhibition of fibrinolysis. Several prospective studies performed on nondiabetic patients show that either fasting or postprandial insulin levels are a sensitive predictor of the development of coronary disease independent of other risk factors. Two recent studies in NIDDM patients confirm this finding and suggest that glycemic control may not be a significant factor in the development of macrovascular disease. Diseases of carbohydrate tolerance, ie, NIDDM, impaired glucose tolerance, obesity, are frequently associated with elevated circulating insulin levels, either physiologically or secondary to treatment. Given the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in these populations, modifying therapy to minimize hyperinsulinemia should be an important consideration in a treatment program. Use of oral agents such as glipizide or gliclazide, which induce less diurnal hyperinsulinemia, may be advantageous when compared to traditional oral agent or insulin therapy.

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3867 newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes, median age 54 years (IQR 48-60 years), who after 3 months' diet treatment had a mean of two fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentrations of 6.1-15.0 mmol/L were randomly assigned intensive policy with a sulphonylurea (chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, or glipizide) or with insulin, or conventional policy with diet. The aim in the intensive group was FPG less than 6 mmol/L. In the conventional group, the aim was the best achievable FPG with diet alone; drugs were added only if there were hyperglycaemic symptoms or FPG greater than 15 mmol/L. Three aggregate endpoints were used to assess differences between conventional and intensive treatment: any diabetes-related endpoint (sudden death, death from hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure, stroke, renal failure, amputation [of at least one digit], vitreous haemorrhage, retinopathy requiring photocoagulation, blindness in one eye, or cataract extraction); diabetes-related death (death from myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, renal disease, hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, and sudden death); all-cause mortality. Single clinical endpoints and surrogate subclinical endpoints were also assessed. All analyses were by intention to treat and frequency of hypoglycaemia was also analysed by actual therapy.