Akathisa is one of the most common and distressing neuroleptic-induced extrapyramidal side effects. Although it is well recognized in the context of conventional antipsychotic medications, there have been recent concerns raised by clinicians and researchers that this syndrome is overlooked in relation to second-generation or atypical antipsychotics. This review examines the recent literature relevant to second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-induced akathisia.
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Ziprasidone's effects on the sleep profile are somehow opposite to what is known about sleep of depressed patients (e.g., disturbances of sleep continuity, a reduciton of slow wave sleep, and a disinhibition of REM sleep). Its REM sleep-suppressing properties resemble those of most, although not all, antidepressants and may be clinically relevant. The drug also demonstrates sleep-consolidating properties under both standard routine and acoustic stress conditions. These effects are most likely related to ziprasidone's 5-HT(2C) antagonism, 5-HT(1A) agonism, and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition.
A 1-year microsimulation economic decision model, with quarterly cycles, was developed to simulate the dynamic nature of usual care of schizophrenia patients who switch, continue, discontinue, and restart their medications. The model captures clinical and cost parameters including adherence levels, relapse with and without hospitalization, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), treatment discontinuation by reason, treatment-emergent adverse events, suicide, health care resource utilization, and direct medical care costs. Published medical literature and a clinical expert panel were used to develop baseline model assumptions. Key model outcomes included mean annual total direct cost per treatment, cost per stable patient, and incremental cost-effectiveness values per QALY gained.
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Medline search returned 118 results. Manual inspection of abstracts allowed selecting six papers for further review. The first meta-analysis of the efficacy of second-generation antipsychotics in mixed episodes, published in 2013, showed the efficacy of these agents. Other papers suggested that asenapine and olanzapine were efficacious for mixed episodes, with olanzapine being equally effective in patients with or without substance abuse. Aripiprazole and ziprasidone were reported to be efficacious and safe in treating manic/mixed episodes in children and adolescents. In another trial, Calcitonin was not found to be superior to placebo in treating manic/mixed episodes.
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56 schizophrenia patients and 77 healthy individuals were tested with the Penn Conditional Exclusion test (PCET), a computerised test of executive function which allowed collection of accuracy and latency performance parameters. Error monitoring was assessed by analyzing reaction times for correct (RTC) and incorrect (RTI) responses. Tests of face recognition, working memory (WM) and processing speed were also administered.
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Olanzapine exhibited a dose-dependent relationship for risk for diabetes, with elevated and progressive risk across intermediate (diabetes rate per 100 person-years = 1.9; adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR), 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-3.1) and top tertile doses (diabetes rate per 100 person-years = 2.7; adjusted HR, 2.5, 95% CI, 1.4-4.5). Quetiapine and risperidone exhibited elevated risk at top dose tertile with no evidence of increased risk at intermediate dose tertile. Unlike olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone, neither aripiprazole nor ziprasidone were associated with risk of diabetes at any dose tertile.
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These results indicated that cognitive functioning improved following treatment with ziprasidone in patients with a history of either treatment resistance or intolerance, and that the effects are comparable or greater than those observed with clozapine. One interpretation of these findings is that clozapine treatment interferes with the performance benefits associated with practice.
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Antipsychotic drugs (AD) are effective and frequently prescribed to more females than males. AD may cause serious cardiovascular side-effects, including prolonged QT interval, eventually leading to torsades de pointes (TdP) and sudden death. Epidemiologic data and case-control studies indicate an increased rate of sudden death in psychiatric patients taking AD. This review summarizes current knowledge about the QT prolonging effects of AD and gives practical suggestions. Amisulpride, clozapine, flupenthixol, fluphenazine, haloperidol, melperone, olanzapine, perphenazine, pimozide, quetiapine, risperidone, sulpiride, thioridazine and ziprasidone cause a QT prolongation ranging from 4 ms for risperidone to 30 ms for thioridazine. Our knowledge about the QT-prolonging effects of many AD is still limited. Females are under-represented in most studies. Many studies were conducted or supported by pharmaceutical companies. To avoid prodysrhythmia caused by QT prolongation, other factors influencing QT interval have to be considered, such as other drugs affecting the same pathway, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, bradycardia, increased age, female sex, congestive heart failure and polymorphisms of genes coding ion channels or enzymes involved in drug metabolism. Because the response of a patient to AD is individual, an electrocardiogram recording the QT interval has to be performed at baseline, after AD introduction and after occurrence of any factor that might influence the QT interval.
To assess the effects of multiple oral doses of ketoconazole on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of oral ziprasidone HCl.
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Twelve patients with Parkinson disease and psychosis were included in an open-label 12-week trial of ziprasidone. Two patients withdrew from the treatment because of adverse effects. The remaining 10 patients reported a significant improvement in psychiatric symptoms. Altogether, there was no deterioration of motor symptoms (UPDRS III score: basal 40.4 +/- 11.1, first month 41.1 +/- 10.8; final visit, 37.7 +/- 13.3). Two patients (20%) suffered a slight deterioration in motor symptoms and another patient suffered deterioration of gait. No analytic alterations or serious adverse effects that could limit the use of ziprasidone were observed. Although controlled trials are needed, the findings suggest that ziprasidone may be effective in parkinsonian patients with psychosis.
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In fiscal year (FY) 2006, 78,849 veterans with schizophrenia were prescribed antipsychotic medication. For FY 1999 to FY 2006 the percentage of patients with schizophrenia who received first-generation antipsychotics decreased from 40.8% to 15.9%, but the percentage receiving olanzapine, after peaking at 32.0% in FY 2001, decreased to 19.0%. The percentage of patients given quetiapine increased from 2.5% to 18.8%; risperidone, from 25.5% to 29.7%. However, clozapine usage remained flat, at 2.0%-3.0%. Use of then-new ziprasidone and aripiprazole rose from 5.0% to 9.0%.
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Comparable improvements in BPRS and CGI severity scores were seen with both drugs. Olanzapine produced significant increases from acute-study baseline values in weight and body mass index and within-group increases in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting insulin. Between-group differences were not significant for lipids and insulin. Mean QTc values at endpoint were 407.1 msec (baseline mean=406.0 msec) and 394.4 msec (baseline mean=399.7 msec) for ziprasidone and olanzapine, respectively. No patient had a QTc interval > or =500 msec.
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An updated MEDLINE search (1999-2003) using the terms atypical antipsychotics, amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, flupenthixol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, ziprasidone, zotepine, hypomania, and mania showed that 34 new cases of induced hypomanic or manic syndromes have been published, not only with olanzapine (N = 5) and risperidone (N = 6), but also with quetiapine (N = 5) and ziprasidone (N = 11) treatment. Six cases have been reported with flupenthixol and 1 with amisulpride, two antipsychotics considered as "partial" atypicals.
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Second generation antipsychotics display antidepressive effects in schizophrenic patients that are more pronounced than those of traditional neuroleptics and that go beyond antidepressive effects secondary to the reduction of positive symptoms. The antidepressive potential of second generation antipsychotics is presumably related to their pharmacological mechanisms, which differ from those of traditional neuroleptics. Among others, 5-HT(2A) antagonism is of special relevance for most of the new antipsychotics in this respect. But also special interactions with the dopaminergic system, as is the case with amisulpride and aripiprazole, or noradrenalin- and/or serotonin-reuptake-inhibition, as with ziprasidone and zotepine, should be considered. It can be summarised that the antipsychotic and antidepressive effects of second generation antipsychotics are mostly based on different pharmacological mechanisms. This might be especially true for direct antidepressive effects, i. e. antidepressive effects that are not mediated by the reduction of positive symptoms.
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Kounis syndrome (KS), described by Kounis and Zavras in 1991, is the manifestation of an allergic reaction preceding and leading to an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). There are three variants of Kounis Syndrome. Here we describe a novel case report of a type 1 variant secondary to Ziprasidone.
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Excessive activation of non-NMDA receptors, AMPA and kainate, contributes to neuronal degeneration in acute and progressive pathologies, possibly including schizophrenia. Because 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists have neuroprotective properties (e.g., against NMDA-induced neurotoxicity), we compared the effects of the antipsychotics, clozapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole, that are partial agonists at 5-HT(1A) receptor, with those of haloperidol, which is devoid of 5-HT(1A) agonist properties, on kainic acid (KA)-induced striatal lesion volumes, in C57Bl/6N mice. The involvement of 5-HT(1A) receptors was determined by antagonist studies with WAY100635, and data were compared with those obtained using the potent and high efficacy 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, F13714. Intra-striatal KA lesioning and measurement of lesion volumes using cresyl violet staining were carried out at 48 h after surgery. F13714, antipsychotics or vehicle were administered ip twice, 30 min before and 3 1/2 h after KA injection. WAY100635 (0.63 mg/kg) or vehicle were given sc 30 min before each drug injection. Clozapine (2 x 10 mg/kg), ziprasidone (2 x 20 mg/kg) and aripiprazole (2 x 10 mg/kg) decreased lesion volume by 61%, 59% and 73%, respectively. WAY100635 antagonized the effect of ziprasidone and of aripiprazole but only slightly attenuated that of clozapine. In contrast, haloperidol (2 x 0.16 mg/kg) did not affect KA-induced lesion volume. F13714 dose-dependently decreased lesion volume. The 61% decrease of lesion volume obtained with F13714 (2 x 0.63 mg/kg) was antagonized by WAY100635. WAY100635 alone did not affect lesion volume. These results show that 5-HT(1A) receptor activation protects against KA-induced striatal lesions and indicate that some atypical antipsychotic agents with 5-HT(1A) agonist properties may protect against excitotoxic injury, in vivo.
To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive ziprasidone in subjects with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (DSM-IV criteria) without psychotic features.
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To demonstrate how several polymorphisms previously associated with the efficacy of the novel antipsychotic iloperidone could be used together to predict clinical response and provide practical information for individualized treatment.
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This review found that atypical antipsychotics seemed to be effective and tolerable in the management of PTSD, although the evidence was limited.
We used the data acquired in the European First-Episode Schizophrenia Trial, an open, randomized trial (conducted in 14 countries) comparing 5 antipsychotic drugs in 498 patients aged 18-40 years with first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder. DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were used. Patients were assessed between December 23, 2002 and January 14, 2006. Most subjects joined the study as inpatients and then continued with follow-ups in outpatient clinic visits. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was administered at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomization. We analyzed the scores on the PANSS hostility item in a subset of 302 patients showing at least minimal hostility (a score > 1) at baseline. We hypothesized (1) that the treatments would differ in their efficacy for hostility and (2) that olanzapine would be superior to haloperidol. Our primary statistical analysis tested the null hypothesis of no difference among the treatment groups in change in hostility over time. Secondary analysis addressed the question of whether the effects on hostility found in the primary analysis were specific to this item. All our analyses were post hoc.
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Estimated dopamine D2 receptor occupancy levels at trough were significantly higher in subjects who developed involuntary movements (N=23) than those who did not (N=195) (71.7±14.4% vs. 64.3±19.3%, p<0.05) while no significant difference was found in the estimated peak D2 receptor occupancy between them (75.4±8.7% vs. 72.1±9.9%, p=0.07). When the analyses were separately conducted for the three drugs, there were no significant differences in estimated peak or trough D2 occupancy although the values were consistently numerically higher among those developing involuntary movements.
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A PubMed search was done using keywords rapid cycling, atypical antipsychotics, refractory bipolar, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. Reference lists from original peer-reviewed articles, review articles, and book chapters were reviewed and articles were extracted.
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Continued research to evaluate adverse effects and tolerability of atypical antipsychotics compared with first-generation antipsychotics and each other is reviewed. This article also reviews the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and drug interactions with these medications. New therapeutic monitoring recommendations for this class of medications have also been proposed. Finally, clinical toxicity in overdose and management are reviewed.
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Comparison of patients taking aripiprazole with a cohort of patients using another AA for depression demonstrated that aripiprazole was independently associated with better (both statistically and clinically) HRQoL and health utilities.
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Conventional meta-analyses have shown inconsistent results for efficacy of pharmacological treatments for acute mania. We did a multiple-treatments meta-analysis, which accounted for both direct and indirect comparisons, to assess the effects of all antimanic drugs.
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A number of studies have pointed to an association between bipolar depression, or symptoms of hypomania and an inadequate response to antidepressants. Such a connection was also found in the Polish TRES-DEP study which included 1051 depressed patients. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated the efficacy of first generation mood-stabilizing drugs (lithium, carbamazepine) and second generation drugs (quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, lamotrigine) for augmentation of antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression. Some evidence has been presented that mixed depressive episodes may also belong to this category.
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Ziprasidone is associated with higher medication costs and outpatient costs than olanzapine; however, it reduces patients' use of ED and inpatient services.
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The model estimated that, over 1 year, clinical outcomes of patients administered oral atypical antipsychotics would not vary considerably. This is partly due to differences 'washing out' because of frequent switching and discontinuation of medication. Economic outcomes did vary among pharmacotherapies: paliperidone ER was associated with cost savings in direct medical costs per patient per year compared to risperidone (cost savings using paliperidone ER vs. risperidone: $793), quetiapine ($1191), olanzapine ($1259), ziprasidone ($2159), and aripiprazole ($2204)). Limitations of this analysis include the absence of direct head-to-head long-term comparative data for antipsychotics. However, the results of the decision analysis held true when tested through a multitude of sensitivity analyses.
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The objectives are to evaluate national poison center data on atypical antipsychotic exposures in young children and compare toxicity amongst selected agents.
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Antipsychotic treatment with so-called "atypical" neuroleptics, as defined by the lack of extrapyramidal side effects in its strict sense, has made great advances in the last decades with the advent of newly developed antipsychotic agents. The first atypical neuroleptic drug was clozapine, also referred to as "dirty drug" or "rich drug" because of its broad receptor binding profile. Clozapine has been the starting point for several different, newly developed antipsychotics. Among these, the most prominent are olanzapine, risperidone, sertindol, ziprasidone, and amisulpride. All of these newly developed, atypical antipsychotics show a high degree of efficacy in the treatment of positive symptoms of schizophrenia in combination with a lack of or a reduced degree of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS). In addition, several atypical antipsychotics seem to have an additional impact on negative symptoms such as alogia, anhedonia, or avolition. However, apart from the clear advantage of clozapine in the treatment of otherwise treatment-resistant schizophrenia, differential indications for the different antipsychotics remain to be established.