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A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometric method was developed for the rapid, and direct measurement of piroxicam (Pir) in pharmaceutical drugs. Pir is a well known and very effective antiinflammatory drug. Pir can be determined by various methods and now we are adding a new one that uses a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometric technique. Conventional spectra were compared for best determination of active substance in pharmaceutical formulations. The Beer-Lambert law and two chemometric approaches, partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR+) methods, were tried in data processing.
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COX-1 activity is constitutive in the rabbit esophageal mucosa, but both COX-2 and COX-1 activity are increased under the impact of acidified pepsin. Treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor DFU is associated with improvement of mucosal damage, which may have therapeutic implications.
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The role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in neural reflexes regulating secretion was examined in muscle-stripped segments of guinea-pig colon set up in modified flux chambers. A 15-microL pulse of 5-HT (100 microM) to the mucosal bath (1.5 mL), which was continuously perfused, evoked an increase in short-circuit current (Isc). The 5-HT-induced increase in Isc was inhibited by tetrodotoxin, N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptophyl-5-hydroxytryptophan amide (5-HTP-DP), GR82334 and atropine, but not by tropisetron. 5-HTP-DP reduced the response to a 5-HT pulse over the concentration range of 1 nM to 1 microM. The Isc response to a 5-HT pulse was unaffected by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, piroxicam. This contrasted with a reduction in the Isc response to mucosal stroking with a brush by piroxicam. The results suggest that a 5-HT pulse, like mucosal stroking, activates a secretory reflex that includes tachykinin and cholinergic neurons but, unlike mucosal stroking, does not release prostaglandins.
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The solubilization of piroxicam to increase transdermal permeation rate was attempted by incorporating the drug in reverse micelle systems consisting of lecithin/isopropyl myristate/water [RMS-1] and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane/water [RMS-2]. The change in polarity of water present in the water pool formed by reverse micelles resulted in a solubilization of piroxicam. These systems were used for the formation of reverse micellar organogels RMO-1 and RMO-2 by means of either varying hydration ratio (Wo) or by addition of a macromolecule, e.g. gelatin, into the system or by taking both the parameters in consideration. These systems were evaluated for physical properties, toxicology, in vitro and in vivo transdermal permeation. Significant (p < 0.01) inhibition of carrageenan induced rat paw oedema was observed for products RMO-1 and RMO-2 and a marketed transdermal product after 3 h.
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The average starting blood pressure in the study group was 149.3A+/-9.8/88.6A+/-6.8 mm Hg. In the lisinopril/hydrochlorothiazide subgroup, both ibuprofen and piroxicam elevated systolic BP by 7.7-9.9% (p<0.001), which, during the acetaminophen period, decreased by 6.9-9.4% to 0.3-0.9% above baseline (p<0.001), increasing again by 7.0-7.7% (p<0.001) during the second exposition to these drugs. In the amlodipine subgroup, ibuprofen or piroxicam increased BP by 1.1-1.6% (p>0.290) only, and there were no significant shifts in the follow-up periods. Analogous deviations were observed with both measurement devices, in all the examinee's positions. In the control group, BP did not change appreciably.
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Electrospinning is an effective method in preparing polymeric nanofibrous drug delivery systems (DDSs) for topical wound healing and skin burn therapy applications. The aim of the present study was to investigate a new synthetic graft copolymer (Soluplus) as a hydrophilic carrier polymer in electrospinning of nanofibrous DDSs. Soluplus (polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (PCL-PVAc-PEG)) was applied in the nonwoven nanomats loaded with piroxicam (PRX) as a poorly water-soluble drug. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in the physical characterization of nanofibrous DDSs. According to the SEM results, the drug-loaded PCL-PVAc-PEG nanofibers were circular in cross-section with an average diameter ranging from 500 nm up to 2 µm. Electrospinning stabilized the amorphous state of PRX. In addition, consistent and sustained-release profile was achieved with the present nanofibrous DDSs at the physiologically relevant temperature and pH applicable in wound healing therapy. In conclusion, electrospinning can be used to prepare nanofibrous DDSs of PCL-PVAc-PEG graft copolymer (Soluplus) and to stabilize the amorphous state of a poorly water-soluble PRX. The use of this synthetic graft copolymer can open new options to formulate nanofibrous DDSs for wound healing.
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1. In a single-blind, placebo controlled study the influence of tenoxicam on responses of glucose, insulin and C-peptide to oral doses of glucose and glibenclamide was examined in 16 healthy male volunteers. 2. The subjects received once daily doses of 2.5 mg glibenclamide for 12 days. From day 5 through 12 eight subjects received concomitantly 20 mg tenoxicam once daily and the remaining eight subjects received placebo. 3. On days 1, 4, 5 and 12 glibenclamide was taken with 75 g glucose and blood glucose, serum insulin and C-peptide were measured over 5 h. Plasma levels of glibenclamide and tenoxicam (where appropriate) were followed over 10 h. 4. Characteristic parameters of blood glucose and insulin and C-peptide responses did not change significantly with time (day) and there was no difference between both treatment groups. 5. Baseline insulin increased from 11.7 mu l-1 on day 1 to 15.6 mu l-1 on day 4 (P = 0.009), likewise baseline C-peptide increased from 478 pmol l-1 to 530 pmol l-1 (P = 0.05), but there was no further change in the subsequent treatment period. 6. The AUC of the glibenclamide plasma concentration-time curve did not show changes with time or differences between treatment groups. The mean (s.d.) oral clearance of tenoxicam was 2.5 (1.5) ml min-1 and appeared slightly higher than in previous studies. 7. It was concluded that tenoxicam did not affect overall glycoregulation in healthy subjects under glibenclamide steady state conditions.
These results suggest an antinociceptive activity which may be a consequence of the synergic action of the substances.
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We have examined the effects of auranofin and some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) on the release of gelatinase from rat neutrophils. Two preparations of neutrophils were used, one derived from normal blood and the other from the inflamed pleural fluids of carrageenin-elicited pleurisy. Both neutrophil preparations released gelatinase in response to stimulation by serum-treated zymosan (STZ) or concanavalin A (Con A). Control, blood-derived neutrophils exposed to STZ produced more than a four-fold increase in the release of gelatinase, a response significantly inhibited by the presence of auranofin at 10(-5) and 10(-4) M. Inflamed, pleural neutrophils exposed to STZ produced a doubling in gelatinase release and this was also inhibited by auranofin at 10(-5) and 10(-4) M. The release of gelatinase by control neutrophils (no stimulation) or by neutrophils exposed to Con A was enhanced by 10(-6) M auranofin. In contrast, the NSAIDs aspirin, piroxicam, sulindac, indomethacin and naproxen had no inhibitory action on neutrophil gelatinase release. We conclude that auranofin is an effective inhibitor of gelatinase release from neutrophils and this property may represent a contributory factor assigned to the beneficial therapeutic action of gold salts.
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Therapeutic superiority of a combination of Paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) over either drug alone remains controversial. We evaluated the efficiency of a combination of Paracetamol and Piroxicam versus each drug alone and also placebo in the management of postoperative pain, in patients who had undergone elective upper limb orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia.
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The 24 primary health care teams of the network, with 158 general practitioners (GPs). The teams were randomised into the groups, experimental (8 teams, 48 GPs), placebo (8 teams, 54 GPs), and control (8 teams, 56 GPs).
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The results indicate that nanoemulgel formulation can be used as a feasible alternative to conventional formulations of piroxicam with advanced permeation characteristics for transdermal application.
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When compared to the control, both the lidocaine and piroxicam patches significantly reduced the mean VAS scores of pain intensity of all different types. However, the lidocaine patch was better at reducing allodynia, whereas the piroxicam patch was more effective for dull pain. The lidocaine patch worked faster than the piroxicam patch for the response to overall pain relief.
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The patient-controlled analgesia with two devices allows to compare analgesic agent and to regulate quantity and quality of multimodal analgesia compounds. The aim of the study is to compare efficiency of analgesic agents in method of patient controlled analgesia with two devices.
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It seems that Piroxicam administration 30 minutes prior to embryo transfer can- not increase pregnancy rates, but can prevent or reduce uterine cramps after the procedure.
Misoprostol significantly lowers the frequency of both duodenal and gastric ulcer development in patients who require long-term therapy with NSAIDS.
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15 patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis received a single dose (20 mg) piroxicam (Felden) as suppository. Serum piroxicam concentrations were assayed by fluorometry 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after the installation of the suppository, the mean values being 1.3, 1.9, 1.8, and 1.8 mg/l, respectively. Then the patients continued on oral piroxicam 20 mg daily for maximum 3 weeks, and serum piroxicam levels (mean 6.3 mg/l) were checked at the end of this period. Nine patients then continued on piroxicam suppositories 20 mg daily for one week, and serum piroxicam levels (mean 4.5 mg/l) were again assayed at the end of this maintenance. Pain at rest, pain on motion, and joint movement restriction were scored on day 1, after oral maintenance, and after rectal maintenance. Reduced scores were found with time, but the only statistically significant effect was in the overall subjective pain relief measured after oral maintenance. Rectal irritation was recorded in one patient. It is concluded that a) absorption of piroxicam from suppository was adequate, b) it was possible to maintain adequate serum piroxicam levels by repeated administration of suppository for one week, and c) the gastrointestinal toleration was acceptable in these patients selected for showing poor tolerance towards other nonsteroidal antiinflammatories.
Adding tramadol and lornoxicam to prilocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia produces favorable effects on sensory and motor blockade. Postoperative analgesic consumption can be decreased by adding tramadol and lornoxicam to prilocaine in intravenous regional anesthesia.
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There were significant differences in the number of patients not requiring further analgesic medication after arthroscopy (P 52.3% vs. C (11.7%) p < 0.05, N (68.6%) vs. C p < 0.001), lower average postoperative pain (0 to 10-point scale, P 2.4 vs. C 2.9 p < 0.05, N 1.5 vs. C p < 0.05) and fewer side effects (N vs. both P and C, p < 0.05).
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RT-PCR and immunofluorescence were used to determine PROK and receptor (PK-R) mRNA levels and PK-R1 localization, respectively. Upper GI transit and fluid secretion were determined in vivo. Contractility and intestinal epithelial ion transport were assessed in isolated ileal segments.
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The binding of non-steroidal antirheumatic drug piroxicam to human serum albumin, human plasma and serum has been studied by equilibrium dialysis at 22 degrees C, pH 7.4. The binding data were analyzed according to Scatchard model. The values of binding parameters obtained for human serum albumin are quite similar to those obtained for human plasma and serum (N1 = 0.3, K1 = 3.0 x 10(5) l/mol; N2 = 7, K2 = 3.5 x 10(3) l/mol). We suggest that piroxicam interacts with the albumin fraction in human plasma proteins. The displacement of piroxicam (in the therapeutical concentration of 4.5 x 10(5) mol/l) from the binding to human serum albumin and human plasma has been studied. The concentration of albumin and albumin fraction in plasma was 2.9 x 10(-4) mol/l. The displacement substances were drugs--diazepam, warfarin and salicylic acid, and endogenous substances-bilirubin and palmitic acid. Only in the presence of salicylic acid in high clinical concentration (14.5 x 10(-4) mol/l) and palmitic acid in the molar ratio to albumin 5:1, free piroxicam substantially increased, which may be of clinical significance. Other studied substances displaced piroxicam only in high concentrations exceeding the therapeutical and physiological range. The evidence was found for the similarity of piroxicam and warfarin high-affinity binding site.
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We conducted a double-blinded study in 90 patients undergoing elective arthroscopic knee surgery to determine whether there is a role of inflammation in the analgesic efficacy of intraarticular piroxicam. Standardized general anesthetic techniques were used for all patients. At the end of the operation, after harvesting synovial biopsies, patients were randomized into three intraarticular groups equally. Group 1 received 25 mL saline, Group 2 received 25 mL 0.25% bupivacaine, and Group 3 received 25 mL 0.25% bupivacaine and piroxicam 20 mg. After microscopic examination of the synovial materials, the patients were divided into two subgroups, inflammation positive (I+) and inflammation negative (I-). Preoperatively and postoperatively at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h, pain levels, analgesic duration, and postoperative analgesic consumption were recorded. Analgesic duration was significantly longer in the I+ subgroup than the I- subgroup of Group 3 (P < 0.05). Pain scores at 1, 2, and 4 h postoperatively were significantly lower in the I+ subgroup than the I- subgroup of Group 3 (P < 0.05), whereas there were no significant differences among the subgroups of Group 1 and 2. We concluded that preoperative inflammation is one of the most important determinants of analgesic efficacy of intraarticular piroxicam.
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DMH was injected subcutaneously at the rate of 40 mg/kg body weight per animal twice a week for 2 weeks. A total of 168 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to seven groups, each group having twenty-four animals. The rats were euthanized at the 8th, 16th and 32nd week of the experiment and examined for the expression of PD-1 in colorectal tissues by immunohistochemical staining.
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The disk IDR values of 14 model drugs were determined at 37 degrees C in US Pharmacopeia buffers at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8. As little as 5 mg of drug were compressed in a die, with surface area of 0.071 cm(2), with the die assembly rotated at 100 rpm in 10 mL media. Drug concentration was measured by an in situ fiber optic ultraviolet method. The solubilities and pK(a)s were determined, and used to simulate dissolution profiles with a convective-diffusion-with-chemical-reaction model.
In order to improve prescription practice and the profile of drug usage in the population, it is important to educate health care professionals, and to inform general population about the risks of inappropriate drug use.
The pharmacokinetic profile of total and free methotrexate (MTX) and the effect of piroxicam on MTX pharmacokinetics was studied in 20 rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving a stable dosage of MTX (10 mg/week). Plasma protein binding ranged from 25 to 55%. To describe the variations with time of the unbound fractions a mathematical characterization relationship between the total and free MTX was used. Total and free MTX were correlated with the sigmoid maximum effect model. The slope factor (gamma) was proportional to the number of binding sites. The free fraction for a given patient can be evaluated from this relationship. Total clearance of MTX was not statistically different with piroxicam (8.0 l/h for total MTX, 13.7 l/h for free MTX) vs without piroxicam. Likewise, there were no significant difference in tmax, area under the plasma concentration vs time curve, distribution and elimination half-lives, mean resonance time, and volumes of distribution. Although the highest observed total MTX concentration was significantly lower with piroxicam, there were no significant pharmacokinetic interactions between low-dose MTX and piroxicam.
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The permeability of a range of fluorescent markers of differing molecular weights across monolayers was examined and immunofluorescence and western blotting analysis of tight junction proteins were also carried out. The mechanism of TER reduction was also examined using cell signalling inhibitors.
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Verbena officinalis has traditionally been used in herbal medicine in Navarra, Spain, in the treatment of topical inflammation. Due to the anti-inflammatory activity of Verbena officinalis 50% methanolic extract in i.p. and topical administration, the effects of several formulations were prepared and studied using carrageenan-induced edema and formalin testing. Piroxicam gel and methyl salicylate ointment were studied as positive control for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, respectively. The edema inhibition of the preparations containing extract at the doses of 1-3% w/w were significantly different from the control group. The anti-inflammatory effect of VO-3% was similar to the effect of piroxicam gel 3 h after carrageenan injection. The analgesic activity of topical preparation with more than 2.5% w/w was observed in the early phase. This activity was observed in concentrations of more than 2% w/w in the late phase. The topical analgesic activity of the extract was less than the analgesic activity of methyl salicylate ointment.
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Prophylactic administration of Piroxicam (Feldene), a reversible inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, significantly reduced the occurrence of paralytic signs and the amount of antibodies against myelin basic protein in the model of mild acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat. Mononuclear infiltration of the central nervous system remained unaffected. A therapeutic intervention with piroxicam, however, increased paresis and CNS pathology. Immunohistochemical studies revealed an increased proportion of ED1-positive macrophages and monocytes in the infiltrates of the spinal cord in animals treated with piroxicam. Possible reasons for the different effects of the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment are discussed in the study.
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The present investigation aimed at evaluating the use of different excipients, beta-lactose and polyvinylpyrrolidone of two molecular weights (PVP K12 and PVP K90), in the production of improved release piroxicam granules, by wet granulation using both water and steam as granulation liquid. The formulations examined were: piroxicam (Px)/beta-lactose; Px/PVP K12 and Px/PVP K90, each one at a 1:9 weight ratio. The most significant difference between beta-lactose and PVP is that, using the first excipient, both steam and water granules were produced while, when PVP were employed, only steam granules were obtained. Image analysis revealed that beta-lactose steam granules had a larger surface area with respect to water granules, whereas lower values of this parameter were observed in PVP-s granules, confirming the Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs and the fractal analysis results. As regards the enhancement of the dissolution profiles, the best result was obtained using beta-lactose steam granules followed by PVP K12 ones, even if the reactive dimension values indicated that during the dissolution process PVP K12 granules modified the surface more than beta-lactose granules. As regards PVP K90, this excipient was the one less influencing the granule morphology and the dissolution behaviour. Differential Scanning Calorimetry analysis suggested the partial amorphisation of the drug in the granules containing the three excipients. This result was then confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Therefore, beta-lactose and PVP K12 could be proposed as useful excipients to enhance the dissolution rate of Px from granules prepared using the steam granulation technique.
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Twenty-eight patients scheduled for lung resection with lateral thoracotomy and postoperative chest drains during combined thoracic epidural bupivacaine plus morphine and general anaesthesia were studied. Postoperative pain treatment was continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.25% 5 ml h-1 plus morphine 0.2 mg h-1 for 48 h and, in addition, the patients received rectal piroxicam 40 mg randomly and double-blind 12 h and 1 h before surgery and 20 mg 24 h-1 postoperatively or placebo. Pain was evaluated at rest, during cough and mobilisation, together with pulmonary function (FEV1, FVC, PEFR) and sensory level of analgesia repeatedly for 48 h. The results showed efficient pain relief, but without differences in pain scores or need for supplementary analgesics between the two groups. Pulmonary function decreased similarly in the two groups. Thus we were unable to show enhanced analgesia by supplementing an otherwise effective low-dose epidural bupivacaine and morphine treatment with piroxicam after thoracic surgery with chest drains.