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Epivir (Lamivudine)

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Epivir is an antiviral medication that prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cells from multiplying in your body. Epivir is not a cure for HIV or AIDS. Epivir is used to treat chronic hepatitis B. Epivir works by blocking the ability of the hepatitis B virus to multiply and infect new liver cells.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Lamivudine.


Epivir is used to treat HIV, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Epivir is not a cure for HIV or AIDS. Epivir is used to treat chronic hepatitis B.

Epivir works by blocking the ability of the hepatitis B virus to multiply and infect new liver cells.

Epivir is also known as Lamivudine, Lamivir, Zeffix, Heptovir.

Generic Name of Epivir is Lamivudine.

Brand names of Epivir are Epivir, Epivir HBR.


Epivir is available in tablets and suspension which should be taken orally.

Epivir can be taken with or without food.

Do not stop taking it suddenly.


If you overdose Epivir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Epivir are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Be careful with Epivir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Epivir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.

Do not use Epivir if you are allergic to Epivir components.

Do not use Epivir together with Combivir (medication that contains a combination of lamivudine and zidovudine).

Be careful with Epivir if you have used a medicine similar to Epivir in the past such as abacavir (Ziagen), didanosine (Videx), stavudine (Zerit), tenofovir (Viread), zalcitabine (Hivid) or zidovudine (Retrovir).

Be careful with Epivir if you have kidney disease, liver disease, history of pancreatitis.

Use latex condom while having sex.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking it suddenly.

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Lamivudine (3TC) and stavudine (d4T) are nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors employed in antiretroviral therapies. The mutational and recombinational potential as well as the total genetic toxicity was determined for both compounds at concentrations allowing at least 30% survival using the standard version of wing SMART assay. The standardized clone induction frequency per mg/ml for mwh/flr(3) genotype were approximately 2 and approximately 33 mutant clones/10(5) cells/(mg/ml) for d4T and 3TC, respectively. Comparing these results with those obtained in the mwh/TM3 genotype, it was possible to quantify the recombinagenic action of each drug. Approximately 86% of the mutant clones induced by 3TC and approximately 76% of the d4T induced clones were related to their mitotic recombination action. Our results indicate that both 3TC and d4T have high recombinagenic potential, and suggest that exposure to the drugs could cause genomic instability and loss of heterozygosity. This may be due to the fact that these genetic alterations play a primary role in carcinogenesis, and are also involved in secondary and subsequent steps of carcinogenesis by which recessive oncogenic mutations are revealed.

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Although several clinical trials have suggested that lamivudine treatment can be very effective in patients with decompensated HBV-associated cirrhosis, its role and clinical efficacy are still uncertain because of the study designs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of lamivudine in consecutively enrolled patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

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Due to the lack of proof reading activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase, mutation/variation of the viral sequence is frequently found during long term follow-ups. In the majority of children with chronic HBV infection, wild type HBV is the dominant viral strain during the natural course of chronic HBV infection. During long-term follow-up, HBV precore mutants developed spontaneously in approximately 10 to 24% of children before HBeAg seroconversion and in around 50% of children after HBeAg seroconversion mutants. Occasionally, children may be infected primarily by mutant strains of HBV. Approximately 36% of children with fulminant hepatitis and 30% of children with acute hepatitis B were infected by precore mutants of HBV transmitted by their mothers or blood donors. In addition, after universal HBV vaccination, HBV surface gene variants emerge or are selected under the immune pressure generated by the host or by administration of hepatitis B immune globulin and hepatitis B vaccination. In HBV DNA positive children from four sequential surveys in Taiwan, the prevalence of hepatitis B surface gene a determinant mutants increased from 7.8% before the vaccination program, to 19.6%, 28.1% and 23.1% at 5, 10 and 15 years after the program. Nucleoside analogue may also induce mutant strains, which reduces the antiviral effects. The most common example is the YMDD mutation of the HBV polymerase gene after antiviral therapy with lamivudine. It developed in 19% of the treated children. In conclusion, children may be infected primarily by mutant strains of HBV either naturally during acute HBV infection. Those infected with wild type HBV initially may develop mutant strains gradually during the course of chronic infection under the host immune pressure. Vaccine escape mutants may develop after immunoprophylaxis. In addition, antiviral therapy with nucleoside analogues may also induce drug resistant mutant strains. Understanding the viral mutation status will help to design accurate strategies of immmunoprophylaxis and antiviral therapy against HBV infection.

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All available controlled clinical trials, published from 2004 to 2010, with the following antiviral therapies for CHB patients: PEG-IFNα combined with lamivudine (LAM), PEG-IFNα only, conventional IFNα and LAM, with a course ≥24 weeks, were meta-analysed for HBsAg clearance and seroconversion.

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To investigate the existence of national adult antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines in 43 World Health Organization (WHO) '3 by 5' focus countries and compare their content with the 2003 WHO ART guidelines.

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A total of 247 patients who developed lamivudine-resistant HBV mutants, with an increase of HBV DNA >/= 1 log copies/mL, received adefovir dipivoxil 10 mg add-on lamivudine 100 mg daily during a median of 115 weeks (range: 25-282 weeks). They were followed for the development of HCC by imaging modalities every 3-6 months.

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The aim of this study is to analyze a group of patients with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders associated with B, C, D hepatitis viral infection. This group of chronic lymphoproliferative disordered patients with associated hepatitis viral infection has been diagnosed and monitored in the Hematology Department of the University Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, between December 2007 and January 2009. Our study is meant to observe the influence of the viral infection on clinical and biological evolution of the enrolled patients. The diagnosis of the chronic lymphoproliferative disorder was based on the bone marrow/ lymph node biopsy and flow-cytometry analysis. The positive diagnosis for hepatitis viral infection was established by ELISA serological tests and viremia was performed by TaqMan method at INBI "Matei Bals" Bucharest. The analyzed group is made up of 41 patients, 25/41 (60.97%) females and 16/41 (39.02%) males, with ages: 20-50 years old--6/41 (14.63%), 51-70 years old--23/41 (56.09%) and over 71 years old--12/41 (29.26%) patients. The histological types of CLD: B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma--in 28/41 (68.29%) patients, T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma--2/41 (4.87%) patients, Hodgkin's lymphoma--2/41 (4.87%), chronic lymphocytic leukemia--7/41 (17.07%), Waldenström disease--2/41 (4.87%) patients. Regarding the type of CLD, 19/41 (46.34%) of the patients have an aggressive type of CLD and 22/41 (53.65%) a non-aggressive type of CLD. The hepatitis viral infection distribution in our patients: 14/41 (34.14%) have HBV infection, 24/41 (58.53%) have HCV infection, double/triple association of viral infection was found in 3/41 (7.31%) patients. Within HBV infection subgroup 9/14 (64.28%) patients have an aggressive type of CLD and 5/14 (35,71%) patients have a non-aggressive type, whereas within the group with HCV infection we found a different distribution: 9/24 (37,5%) patients with aggressive type and 15/24 (62.5%) with non-aggressive type of CLD. The clinical parameters monitored were: B signs were present in 19/41 (43.34%) patients, the superficial or profound adenopathies--were found in 29/41 (70,73%) patients, hepatomegaly--in 38/41 (92,68%) patients, splenomegaly--in 21/41 (51.21%) patients, extra-nodal involvements in 10/41 (24,39%) patients and most frequent in the non-aggressive type of CLD--6/10 (60%) patients. The hematological and biochemical parameters were: the presence of anemia and thrombocytopenia--found in a small number of patients; lymphocytosis--positive in 33/41 (80.48%) patients, most with HCV infection and non-aggressive type of disease, the presence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia--in 4/41 (9.75%) patients, cryoglobulins--8/41 (19.51%) patients, all with HCV infection; also the liver function was monitored. Antiviral therapy was administered to 12/41 (29.26%) patients--Lamivudine to 8/41 (19.51%) patients and Ribavirine/Interferon to 4/41 (9.75%) patients. Chemotherapy was given in 32/41 (78%) patients. Monoclonal antibodies anti CD20 (Rituximab) therapy was associated in 6/41 (14.63%) patients.

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Retrospective study.

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A high-performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the determination in human urine of GI138870X, the sulphoxide metabolite of a novel dideoxynucleoside analogue, 2'-deoxy-3'-thiacytidine (lamivudine). GI138870X was extracted from human urine using Empore SDB RPS solid-phase extraction disks prior to reversed-phase chromatography with UV detection. The method has shown to be valid over the concentration range 0.5-100 micrograms/ml using a 0.5-ml sample volume.

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Patients with chronic hepatitis B who had histologically confirmed cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive lamivudine (100 mg per day) or placebo for a maximum of five years. Of 651 patients, 436 were assigned to receive lamivudine and 215 to receive placebo. The primary end point was time to disease progression, defined by hepatic decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, bleeding gastroesophageal varices, or death related to liver disease. An independent data and safety monitoring board monitored the progress of the study and performed interim analyses of the data.

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The investigation involved a total of 194 patients (88 were treated using add-on therapy, and 106 were treated using switch therapy). We analyzed the HBV polymerase gene by amplification and direct sequencing procedures.

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All English-language in vitro and in vivo studies and abstracts evaluating apricitabine were reviewed and considered for inclusion. Preference was given to human data.

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We report a severe flare-up in a chronic hepatitis patient due to dual infection with hepatitis B and D viruses during alpha-interferon therapy. Pre-treatment, the patient had detectable levels of both viruses. After 9 months of therapy, an alanine aminotransferase flare with acute hepatic decompensation was detected. Alpha-interferon was discontinued and lamivudine (100 mg once daily) was started, after which the patient reversed slowly. Hepatitis B early antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion with hepatitis B virus-DNA clearance was observed 1 month after the flare; 15 months later, the patient had persistently normal alanine aminotransferase levels with negative results for both serum hepatitis B virus-DNA and hepatitis D virus-RNA. In conclusion, liver disease may be exacerbated during interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis D who are also positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBeAg. Therefore, extra care in monitoring should be considered and strict follow-up is recommended, since clearance of hepatitis D may occur after HBeAg seroconversion in coinfected patients. Lamivudine may be administered early in hepatitis D-RNA/HBsAg-positive patients at high risk of liver failure once a severe flare-up occurs during interferon therapy.

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CD4:CD8 ratios were lower, and uncharacterized resistance mutations were found in the RT region in the group of treated cats. A slight increase in viral load was observed in some cats after discontinuing treatment.

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Partially randomized, controlled, prospective trial.

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NNRTI plus NRTI-based three-drug or four-drug ART can be given across childhood without routine toxicity monitoring; CD4 monitoring provided clinical benefit after the first year on ART, but event rates were very low and long-term survival high, suggesting ART rollout should take priority. CD4 benefits from four-drug induction were not durable, but three-NRTI long-term maintenance was immunologically and clinically similar to NNRTI-based ART and could be valuable during tuberculosis co-treatment.

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A simple, fast, and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay was developed for quantitation of lamivudine in human serum. Lamivudine is polar compound and its extraction from the human serum in previously published HPLC methods involved either protein precipitation or solid phase extraction techniques. However, existence of endogenous peaks which interfere with the drug or appeared as late eluting peaks and lead to long run time of analysis has been reported. Application of either an ion pairing agent in the mobile phase or time consuming column purge has been used in the published methods. Present paper describes liquid - liquid extraction of lamivudine and internal standard (famotidine) using dichloromethane-isopropyl alcohol (1:1, v/v) as an extracting solvent and salting out approach. The mobile phase was a mixture of phosphate buffer (0.05 M) containing triethylamine (1 mL/L, v/v; pH 3.5) and methanol (91:9, v/v) at a flow rate of 2.2 mL/min. The analysis was performed on a column (150 mm x 6 mm i.d.) which was packed with 5 microm particles of ODS packing material. Under these conditions no interference in the assay from any endogenous substance was observed. The limit of quantification was evaluated to be 5 ng/mL. Accuracy and precision of the method were also studied and the technique was shown to be selective and linear into the concentration range of 5-2500 ng/mL. This method has been used in two randomized crossover bioequivalence studies of 100 and 150 mg lamivudine preparations in 12 and 24 healthy volunteers, respectively.

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  This study evaluated the on-treatment serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level during nucleos(t)ide analog (NUC) therapy and the correlation with off-treatment sustained virological response (SVR).

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To evaluate strategies to reduce HIV-1 transmission through breastfeeding, a multicentre study including a nested randomized controlled trial was implemented in five research sites in West, East and South Africa (The Kesho Bora Study). The aim was to optimize the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (PMTCT) and to preserve the health of the HIV-1-infected mother. The study included long-term ARV treatment for women with advanced disease, and short-course ARV prophylaxis stopped at delivery for women with early disease. Women with intermediate disease participated in a randomized controlled trial to compare safety and efficacy of triple-ARV prophylaxis prolonged during breastfeeding with short-course ARV prophylaxis stopped at delivery. Between January 2005 and August 2008 a total of 1140 women were enrolled. This paper describes the study design, interventions and protocol amendments introduced to adapt to evolving scientific knowledge, international guidelines and availability of ARV treatment. The paper highlights the successes and challenges during the conduct of the trial. The Kesho Bora Study included one of the few randomized controlled trials to assess safety and efficacy of ARV prophylaxis continued during breastfeeding and the only randomized trial to assess maternal prophylaxis started during pregnancy. The findings have been important for informing international and national guidelines on MTCT prevention in developing countries where, due to poverty, lack of reliable and affordable supply of replacement feed and stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, HIV-infected women have little or no option other than to breastfeed their infants. (ISRCTN71468401).

epivir drug category

There are now exactly 20 anti-HIV drugs licenced (approved) for clinical use, and > 30 anti-HIV compounds under (pre)clinical development. The licensed anti-HIV drugs fall into five categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs: zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir and emtricitabine); nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs: tenofovir disoproxil fumarate); non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs: nevirapine, delavirdine and efavirenz); protease inhibitors (PIs: saquinavir, indinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, atazanavir and fosamprenavir); and fusion inhibitors (FIs: enfuvirtide). The compounds that are currently under clinical (Phase I, II or III) or preclinical investigation are either targeted at the same specific viral proteins as the licensed compounds (i.e., reverse transcriptase [NRTIs: PSI-5004, (-)-dOTC, DPC-817, elvucitabine, alovudine, MIV-210, amdoxovir, DOT; NNRTIs: thiocarboxanilide, UC-781, capravirine, dapivirine, etravirine, rilpivirine], protease [PIs: tipranavir, TMC-114]) or other specific viral proteins (i.e., gp120: cyanovirin N; attachment inhibitors: AIs, such as BMS-488043; integrase: L-870,812, PDPV-165; capsid proteins: PA-457, alpha-HCG); or cellular proteins (CD4 downmodulators: CADAs; CXCR4 antagonists: AMD-070, CS-3955; CCR5 antagonists: TAK-220, SCH-D, AK-602, UK-427857). Combination therapy is likely to remain the gold standard for the treatment of AIDS so as to maximise potency, minimise toxicity and diminish the risk for resistance development. Ideally, pill burden should be reduced to once-daily dosing so as to optimise the patient's compliance and reduce the treatment costs.

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Randomised clinical trials addressing benefits and harms of lamivudine or adefovir dipivoxil alone or in combination with hepatitis B immunoglobulins (HBIg) for preventing recurrent HBV infection in patients who are liver transplanted due to HBV infection with or without hepatocellular carcinoma.

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Compared to lamivudine alone (22.63% ± 0.12%), both sequential (51.50% ± 0.17%, P = 0.034) and cytokine treatment (49.66% ± 0.06%, P = 0.041) showed a stronger inhibition of HBV cccDNA; the difference between the sequential and cytokine groups was not statistically significant (51.50% ± 0.17% vs 49.66% ± 0.06%, P = 0.88). The sequential group showed less inhibition of HBV DNA replication than the lamivudine group (67.47% ± 0.02% vs 82.48% ± 0.05%, P = 0.014); the difference between the sequential and cytokine groups was not statistically significant (67.47% ± 0.02% vs 57.45% ± 0.07%, P = 0.071). The levels of HBsAg and HBeAg were significantly decreased in the sequential treatment group compared to the other groups [HBsAg: 3.48 ± 0.04 (control), 3.09 ± 0.08 (lamivudine), 2.55 ± 0.13 (cytokine), 2.32 ± 0.08 (sequential), P = 0.042 for each between-group comparison; HBeAg: 3.48 ± 0.01 (control), 3.08 ± 0.08 (lamivudine), 2.57 ± 0.15 (cytokine), 2.34 ± 0.12 (sequential), P = 0.048 for each between-group comparison]. Cell viability in the cytokine group was reduced to 58.03% ± 8.03% compared with control cells (58.03% ± 8.03% vs 100%, P = 0.000). Lamivudine pretreatment significantly reduced IFN-γ + TNF-α-mediated toxicity of HepG2.2.15 cells [85.82% ± 5.43% (sequential) vs 58.03% ± 8.03% (cytokine), P = 0.002].

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Given the heterogeneity of cultures considered, the absence of meaningful explanations for statistically significant differences between cultural groups supports the cross-cultural validity of the SDM versions included in this trial. Thus, this study demonstrated that it is feasible to conduct assessment of crosscultural validity of PRO instruments using data collected in the setting of multinational clinical trials.

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Adult HIV-1-infected individuals naïve to antiretroviral therapy with viral load above 400 HIV-RNA copies/ml were randomized (1:1) to either 400 mg lopinavir /100 mg ritonavir (LPV/r) BID plus 150 mg lamivudine/300 mg zidovudine (CBV) BID versus LPV/r BID plus 300 mg atazanavir (ATV) QD. Main outcome measure was the virologic failure in both groups, defined as viral load ≥50 copies/ml at week 48.

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In an open-label, uncontrolled multicentre clinical trial, antiretroviral therapy naive patients (n = 93) with a high median baseline HIV-1 RNA level of 210 000 copies/mL (range 17 000-2 943 000) and a median CD4 cell count of 195 copies/microL (range 4-656 copies/microL) were started on a regimen of either zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC) (49%), stavudine (d4T)/3TC (38%) or d4T/didanosine (ddI) (14%) plus RTV and IDV, each at 400 mg BID. CD4 cell counts and HIV RNA were determined at 4-week intervals for a duration of 72 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed on treatment as well as by intent to treat, where missing values were counted as failures.

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A trend was seen for a lower survival rate from AIDS to death in the chronic HBV infection group compared with the negative group [hazard ratio (HR) 1.43; P=0.118]. The only independent predictor of lower survival rate was hepatitis C virus positivity (HR 1.62; P=0.008). Protective factors were use of HAART (HR 0.40; P=0.0003), use of lamivudine (HR 0.36; P<0.0001) and use of tenofovir (HR 0.23; P<0.0001). Survival from HIV diagnosis to death was not different among the HBV groups. Isolated core antibody patients did not have a lower survival rate compared with those with resolved HBV infection. Patients with chronic HBV infection were 3.5 times more likely to have liver disease than those with no HBV infection (P<0.02).

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Pooled ECHO/THRIVE lipid and body fat data are presented from the ECHO (Efficacy Comparison in Treatment-Naïve, HIV-Infected Subjects of TMC278 and Efavirenz) and THRIVE (TMC278 Against HIV, in a Once-Daily Regimen Versus Efavirenz) trials.

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In arm 1, the geometric mean ratio (GMR) between period 1 and period 2 was 0.94 (90% confidence interval [CI], .64-1.37) for the 12-hour area under the time-concentration curve (AUC0-12), and 0.69 (90% CI, .42-1.13) for the concentration at 12 hours (C12). In arm 2, the corresponding GMRs were 0.75 (90% CI, .48-1.17) and 1.10 (90% CI, .61-2.00) for period 1 vs period 2, and 1.10 (90% CI, .78-1.55) and 1.68 (90% CI, .88-3.23) for period 1 vs period 3.

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buy epivir 2015-11-19

Patient groups were well matched for demographic and disease characteristics, including region (60% from Europe), HBV genotype (45% genotype D), HBeAg status (47% HBeAg-positive), and duration of lamivudine treatment (mean, 3.8 years). At week 96 of treatment, 89.4% of patients in the TDF group and 86.3% in the FTC/TDF group had levels of HBV DNA <69 buy epivir IU/mL (P = .43). HBeAg loss and seroconversion did not differ between groups; only 1 patient (0.7%) in the FTC/TDF group lost hepatitis B surface antigen. Treatment was well tolerated; confirmed renal events (creatinine increase of ≥0.5 mg/dL [>44 umol/L], creatinine clearance <50 mL/min, or level of PO4 <2 mg/dL [<0.65 mmol/L]) were generally mild and infrequent (<1%). Small reductions (<2%) in mean bone mineral density of hip and spine were detected by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in both groups. No TDF resistance developed through 96 weeks of treatment.

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We initially studied 141 patients treated with lamivudine for 1 year or more, and 49 buy epivir patients who showed viral breakthrough were the subjects of this study. Their mean lamivudine administration period was 2.3 +/- 0.9 years.

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The median duration of observed failure Prevacid Solutab 30 Mg was 691 days. There were 41 thymidine analogue regimens and 34 protease inhibitor regimens; concomitant ritonavir was used 4 times. New major protease inhibitor mutations emerged more rapidly than did new TAMs (P = 0.0019); new TAMs emerged more rapidly in thymidine analogue regimens that did not include lamivudine (P = 0.0073). The emergence of TAMs and major protease inhibitor mutations did not differ if lamivudine was not part of the thymidine analogue regimen. The evolution of CD4 cell counts and plasma viral loads (pVLs) during virologic failure was similar regardless of whether or not a new TAM or major protease inhibitor mutations emerged or, for thymidine analogue-containing regimens, whether lamivudine was or was not used.

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We retrospectively compared the antiviral effect of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) with that of adefovir Aricept Drug Interactions Side Effects dipivoxil (ADV) for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who developed resistance to lamivudine (LAM).

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We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the coformulation of ABC/3TC administered with DRV/r in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced Viagra Soft Tablets patients.

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282 reports of FR among HIV-positive patients Mestinon 60 Mg Meda taking indinavir submitted through the passive postmarketing system to Merck through February 23, 1998.

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Overall, 3TC was well tolerated following dosing, and there were no significant changes in the safety parameters measured. Phase I/II clinical trials with 3TC are ongoing Geodon Max Dose to evaluate its safety, pharmacokinetics and preliminary activity.

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To compare changes in quality of life (QoL) over 96 weeks in patients enrolled in a triple-therapy Celexa Dosage Forms protocol, a treatment-intensification protocol, or an induction-maintenance therapy protocol, and to compare QoL between patients who continued and discontinued their antiretroviral regimen.

buy epivir 2016-10-29

Chronic hepatitis B affects nearly 10% of HIV-infected patients. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a dynamic disease and coinfection with HIV impacts directly on the outcome of HBV infection, considerably complicating its natural history, diagnosis, and management. The aim of this study was to compare two cohorts of HBV monoinfected and HBV/HIV coinfected Iranian patients undergoing long-term lamivudine therapy from the clinical and virological aspects, as well as the frequency of detected mutations in HBV genome. To this end, HBV Pol/S regions from 72 patients were PCR-amplified and directly sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a 40-times higher risk of coinfection with ayw3 subtype of HBV genotype D rather than ayw2 subtype [P<0.001, odd: 40.66, CI: 95 % (4.69-352.23)]. While no resistance mutation was detected in HBV/HIV coinfected cohort, LAM-resistance mutations (rtM204I/V in YMDD and rtL180M in FLLA polymerase motifs) were identified in 30% (9 out of 30) and 16.66% (5 out of 30) of HBV monoinfected patients (P<0.05). Moreover, several mutations (sP105A, sI110S/L, sS136Y and sP127T/L) with significant differences in the frequency were identified in the S region of both cohorts. Finally, this study found strong correlation between the type of infection (mono or coinfection) and characteristics like patient gender, ALT levels, HBV-DNA levels and HBV subtypes. These results pointed to the importance of determination of HBV variants in the management of patients and suggested that in contrary to HBV monoinfections, LAM Duphaston Tablet Uses In English may be still an appropriate drug for the treatment of HBV in HBV/HIV coinfected patients; however, further studies to clarify the role of HIV in HBV LAM-resistance mutations are required.

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Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were treated with CADA and infected with 16 different clinical isolates. After 8 days of infection, the median inhibitory concentration (IC50) was calculated from the p24 viral antigen content in the supernatant. MT-4 cells were infected with HIV-1NL4.3 and then cultured with CADA or other antiretroviral drugs (i.e., several reverse transcriptase, protease and entry inhibitors), alone and in combination. After 4 days, IC50 was determined for the various drugs in Elavil 10 Mg Overdose replicate assays. Analysis of combined effects was performed using the median effect principle (CalcuSyn; Biosoft).

buy epivir hbv 2017-08-05

If implemented at the level of antenatal coverage in Nigeria (58%), mother-to Asacol 500 Mg Tablet -child HIV transmission could be reduced to 16.1% with MSOC and 12.8% with the intervention. At current pregnancy rates, the intervention would prevent 7680 infant HIV cases and avert 230 400 DALYs annually, compared to MSOC. The average health-system cost of the intervention was US$ 401 per pregnancy compared to $293 per pregnancy with MSOC. The intervention was associated with an ICER of $113 per-DALY-averted compared to MSOC, and was highly cost-effective using a willingness-to-pay threshold of per-capita Nigerian GDP.

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To study the occurrence and predictive factors of hepatitis B virus DAN negative conversion among patients with Cost Of Sinequan chronic hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis during lamivudine therapy.

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To evaluate the pharmacokinetic features, safety, and tolerance of abacavir, given alone and in combination with other nucleoside antiretroviral agents, in Nexium Maximum Dose Daily symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children.

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Earlier rescue therapy for cirrhotic patients with genotypic Prednisone Oral Medication resistance due to LMV-resistant mutants may improve patient outcome.

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The present cohort study shows that about two thirds of HBV-infected subjects who live in the Ruhrgebiet originate from migrants many of whom have significant economic problems. Special programs should be designed for migrants in order to detect HBV infection and to inform infected subjects about their individual and infectious risks.

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Conjugates of phosphorylated dideoxynucleoside antiviral drugs dideoxycytidine (zalcitabine) and lamivudine with SiO2 nanoparticles were obtained via the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry between a nucleoside triphosphate containing an alkynyl group at the γ-phosphate or azidothymidine triphosphate and SiO2 nanoparticles containing alkyl azide or alkynyl groups, respectively. 4-(Prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)butylamino group has been attached to the γ-phosphate group of dideoxycytidine (zalcitabine) and lamivudine 5'-triphosphates via the phosphoramidate linkage. New compounds were shown to be potent killers of human colon carcinoma cells. Anti-HIV activity of the conjugates was demonstrated as well. The conjugates of phosphorylated lamivudine and dideoxycytidine (zalcitabine) showed higher potency than the parent nucleosides. The conjugate of phosphorylated azidothymidine was less active against HIV-1 than the parent nucleoside probably because of the replacement of its 3'-azido group by 1,2,3-triazole ring. These results show an opportunity for using SiO2 nanoparticles as a transport for delivering phosphorylated nucleosides to cells in order to increase their efficiency as antiviral and anticancer drugs.

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In patients exhibiting suboptimal responses to ADV+NA therapy for NA-resistant CHB, switching from ADV to TDF might provide better virological outcomes.

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In many transplant centres lamivudine is an important component of prophylaxis against, and treatment of, hepatitis B virus (HBV) graft infection. Drug resistant HBV species with specific polymerase mutations may emerge during lamivudine treatment.

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ent-13-Hydroxykaur-16-ene-19-N-butylureide (6) was one of 33 synthesized C-4-substituted steviol derivatives that were evaluated for their effects on hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion. The IC50 (16.9 μM) and SI (57.7) values for inhibiting HBV DNA replication of compound 6 were greater than those of the reference compound, lamivudine (3-TC; IC50: 107.5 μM; SI: 22.0). Thus, the anti-HBV mechanism of 6 was investigated, and it specifically inhibited viral gene expression and reduced viral DNA levels, as well as potently attenuated all of the viral promoter activity of HBV-expressing Huh7 cells. Examination of cellular signaling pathways found that 6 inhibited the activities of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB- and activator protein (AP)-1 element-containing promoters, but had no effects on AP-2 or interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE)-containing promoters in HBV-expressing cells. Meanwhile, it significantly eliminated NF-κB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling-related protein levels and inhibited their phosphorylation in HBV-transfected Huh7 cells. The inhibitory potency of 6 against HBV DNA replication was reversed by cotransfecting the NF-κB p65 expression plasmid. Using the MAPK-specific activator anisomycin also reversed the inhibitory effect of 6 on viral DNA replication. The present findings suggest that the anti-HBV mechanism of 6 is partly mediated through the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

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Treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with lamivudine (3TC) is limited by development of drug-resistant mutants at the YMDD motif. We aimed to validate the use of mass spectrometry to detect YMDD mutants and quantify viral subpopulations.

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The gene chip can be used to test HBV YVDD,YIDD motif mutation compared with nucleotide sequences assay technique, the accuracy rate was 100%.

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The management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) during pregnancy remains a challenge and involves various aspects of maternal-fetal care. Despite the standard immunoprophylaxis, a significant portion of infants born to highly viremic mothers remain infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Emerging data suggest that antiviral therapy in the third trimester can prevent immunoprophylaxis failure. To minimize fetal exposure to antiviral agents, antiviral therapy during pregnancy should be reserved for mothers with advanced disease or who are at risk for hepatic decompensation. Current safety data suggest that lamivudine, telbivudine, or tenofovir may be used during pregnancy. However, the timing in initiating antiviral therapy requires careful assessment of risks and benefit. The authors provide a systematic review of the features of HBV during pregnancy, risk factors for vertical transmission, and evidence-based data on antiviral use during pregnancy. They propose an algorithm to assess the need of antiviral treatment and monitor mothers with CHB.

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The observed high frequency of lamivudine resistance may have implications for the concept of long-term virus-suppressive therapy of chronic hepatitis B by lamivudine monotherapy.

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After 96 weeks of entecavir therapy in ETV-060, 90% of patients achieved HBV DNA <400 copies/mL as compared to 21% of patients who completed 24 weeks of lamivudine therapy in ETV-047. Increasing proportions of patients achieved ALT normalization and HBeAg seroconversion following long-term entecavir treatment. No patients experienced virologic breakthrough, and substitutions associated with entecavir resistance were not observed in patients with detectable HBV DNA. Entecavir was well tolerated during long-term treatment.