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We conducted an open-label, single-arm Phase I/II clinical trial in metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) patients eligible for docetaxel combined with treatment with autologous mature dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with killed LNCaP prostate cancer cells (DCVAC/PCa). The primary and secondary endpoints were safety and immune responses, respectively. Overall survival (OS), followed as a part of the safety evaluation, was compared to the predicted OS according to the Halabi and MSKCC nomograms.
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Eighty six patients diagnosed with relapsed or refractory NHL were included in our study from January 2007 to January 2013. The chemotherapy regimen was COAD-B, the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated every 2 courses. Once the stable disease (SD) or progress of the disease (PD) achieved, the patients would switch to other second-line regimens.
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Of a total 1,023 of breast cancer and 814 lung cancer patients identified, 292 had hypercalcemia at first hospitalization or during cancer treatment (174 breast and 118 lung cancer patients). About a quarter of these patients had advanced stage cancers: 26.4% had mild hypercalcemia (10.5-11.9 mg/dl), 55.5% had moderate (12-12.9 mg/dl), and 18.2% severe hypercalcemia (13-13.9; 14-16 mg/dl). Chemotherapy lowered calcium levels significantly both in breast and lung cancer patients with hypercalcemia; in particular with chemotherapy type 5-flurouracil+epirubicin+cyclophosphamide (FEC) for breast cancer, and gemcitabine+cisplatin in lung cancer.
Although most chemotherapeutic drugs have the potential to exert cardiotoxicity, these drugs have been chosen for use in cancer treatment because survival and curability benefits outweigh the risk of these complications. Anthracyclines, for example, are a powerful class of chemotherapeutic agents; however, their use is restricted by dose-related cardiotoxicity. Experimental evidence strongly supports the role of reactive oxygen species in this process, suggesting that antioxidants may be effective in protecting the heart from toxicity. Clinical use of antioxidants to protect the heart during anthracycline chemotherapy has been controversial due to the potential for reduced cytotoxic efficacy toward cancer cells. Results from randomized clinical trials addressing whether antioxidants either reduce the incidence of clinical heart failure among patients undergoing anthracycline-based chemotherapy or reduce the response rates to anthracycline-based chemotherapy have been unclear. While anthracyclines are by far the most well-studied antitumor agents with cardiotoxic properties, evidence now shows that reactive oxygen species may play roles in cardiotoxicity induced by other chemotherapeutic agents such as cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and trastuzumab. Thus, in the new era of combination therapy and long-term survival of cancer patients, the use of antioxidants to support cancer therapy should be revisited.
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1) The therapeutic decision should be shared with the patient; 2) immediately after the diagnosis, a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) should be prescribed, and the treatment adjusted to achieve remission; 3) treatment should be conducted by a rheumatologist; 4) the initial treatment includes synthetic DMARDs; 5) methotrexate is the drug of choice; 6) patients who fail to respond after two schedules of synthetic DMARDs should be assessed for the use of biologic DMARDs; 7) exceptionally, biologic DMARDs can be considered earlier; 8) anti-TNF agents are preferentially recommended as the initial biologic therapy; 9) after therapeutic failure of a first biologic DMARD, other biologics can be used; 10) cyclophosphamide and azathioprine can be used in severe extra-articular manifestations; 11) oral corticoid is recommended at low doses and for short periods of time; 12) non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should always be prescribed in association with a DMARD; 13) clinical assessments should be performed on a monthly basis at the beginning of treatment; 14) physical therapy, rehabilitation, and occupational therapy are indicated; 15) surgical treatment is recommended to correct sequelae; 16) alternative therapy does not replace traditional therapy; 17) family planning is recommended; 18) the active search and management of comorbidities are recommended; 19) the patient's vaccination status should be recorded and updated; 20) endemic-epidemic transmissible diseases should be investigated and treated.
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High levels of TH and PHOX2B mRNA in PB at diagnosis objectively identify children with ultrahigh-risk disease who may benefit from novel treatment approaches. The level of TH, PHOX2B, and DCX mRNA in BM and/or PB at diagnosis might contribute to an algorithm to improve stratification of children for treatment.
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Inner egg membranes of fertilized chicken eggs received a single treatment with either the kINPen 09 (1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 min) or the kINPen MED (3, 4, 5, or 10 min). After three days of incubation, blood smears (panoptic May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) were performed, and 1000 erythrocytes per egg were evaluated for the presence of polychromatic and normochromic nuclear staining as well as nuclear aberrations and binucleated cells (hen's egg test for micronuclei induction, HET-MN). At the same time, the embryo mortality was documented. For each experiment, positive controls (cyclophosphamide and methotrexate) and negative controls (NaCl-solution, argon gas) were included. Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the blood plasma was assessed by ascorbic acid oxidation assay after treatment.
To evaluate the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) International Prognostic Index (IPI), we analyzed 284 patients treated with the combination of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) in our institution in Japan. Their 5-year overall survival (OS) by risk level was 80.7%, 74.8%, 55.4% and 67.5% (P=0.005); and their 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 76.8%, 78.6%, 63.7% and 58.3% (P=0.0722). The NCCN-IPI is a simple scale that uses conventional clinical factors, but did not reflect survival in our cohort. The NCCN-IPI may require further evaluation for different regions and ethnicities before adopting it for routine clinical use.
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The intensity of conditioning regimen is highly correlated with outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We have previously reported that idarubicin (IDA) intensified BUCY2 regimen could reduce relapse and improve survival for high-risk hematological malignancies undergoing allo-HSCT. However, there is no published study comparing the efficacy of IDA-BUCY2 regimen for high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) versus acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). We further retrospectively compared therapeutic outcomes of intensified conditioning regimen on 140 high-risk AML and ALL patients in the data analyses. IDA 15mg/m(2)/d was administered by continuous infusion from day -11 to -9, followed by intravenous injection of busulfan (BU) (3.2mg/kg/d) from day -6 to -4, and intravenous injection of cyclophosphamide (CY) (1.8g/m(2)/d) from day -3 to -2 in IDA-BUCY2 regimen. For high-risk AML, cumulative probabilities of 3-year relapse rates in IDA-BUCY2 and traditional BUCY2 regimens were 16.9%, 43.3% (P=0.016). Cumulative probabilities of 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were 69.2% vs 44.0% (P=0.024), and 66.9% vs 38.2% (P=0.01). However, two regimens showed no significant differences for high-risk ALL. Multivariate analysis also indicated that IDA intensified BUCY2 conditioning was the favorable variable to reduce relapse and elevate survival for high-risk AML patients. In conclusion, IDA-BUCY2 regimen reduces relapse and improves survival for high-risk AML undergoing allo-HSCT, but not presenting uniform therapeutic effects for high-risk ALL.
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Tolvaptan is an oral vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist recognized as effective for fluid retention associated with congestive heart failure and liver cirrhosis. However, there have been no reports concerning clinical experience with tolvaptan for sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). A 42-year-old male with primarily refractory T-lymphoblastic lymphoma underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling donor. The myeloablative conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan and cyclophosphamide. On day 20, the total bilirubin level was elevated to 2.0 mg/dL, and body weight increased from 76 to 85 kg, allowing a diagnosis of SOS to be made. Treatments with thrombomodulin, furosemide, carperitide, and low-dose dopamine were ineffective. By day 27, the patient's body weight had increased to 90 kg, and he subsequently developed cardiopulmonary failure. Therefore, we administered low-dose tolvaptan for 2 days (3.75 mg on day 27 and 7.5 mg on day 28). Consequently, his ascites and edema were significantly reduced, and body weight returned to 77 kg by day 34. However, he died of lymphoma progression on day 55. Tolvaptan may be an alternative and promising treatment for refractory fluid retention associated with SOS, although it is unclear whether tolvaptan administration leads to improvement in clinical outcome.
Prospective, comparative, study.
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Patients with newly diagnosed myeloma who received lenalidomide had an increased risk of developing haematological second primary malignancies, driven mainly by treatment strategies that included a combination of lenalidomide and oral melphalan. These results suggest that alternatives, such as cyclophosphamide or alkylating-free combinations, should be considered instead of oral melphalan in combination with lenalidomide for myeloma.
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A 46-year-old man, who had had sinusitis, developed bilateral omalgia, petechiae on his lower extremities and a congested right eye. A blood test detected elevated serum C-reactive protein level. Computed tomography incidentally found an acute lesion of thalamic hemorrhage without neurological symptoms and no specific therapy was given at the time. Thereafter, he developed vertigo, vomiting and pneumonia for which antibiotics were ineffective. He was referred and admitted to our hospital. Further, aural and renal lesions, and presence of serum proteinase 3-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (PR3-ANCA) confirmed his diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) (GPA). With corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide therapy, his symptoms disappeared in two months along with faded PR3-ANCA. Afterward he showed neither new cerebral lesion nor symptom. This is a rare case of GPA manifested with asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. It should be noted that GPA could cause various manifestations in central nervous system such as a fatal or an asymptomatic hemorrhagic lesion, which might respond to immunosuppressive therapy.
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The main exposure was the receipt of chemotherapy, and the main outcome was mortality.
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We hypothesized that the addition of toceranib to metronomic cyclophosphamide/piroxicam therapy would significantly improve disease-free interval (DFI) and overall survival (OS) in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA) following amputation and carboplatin chemotherapy.
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Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and Goodpasture's glomerular basement membrane disease are the most common causes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, a life-threatening disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus and the antiphospholipid syndrome are also causes of alveolar hemorrhage. We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with renal diseases. Diagnosis of DAH was based on the presence of bloody bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. There were three men and 12 women, with a mean age of 50.5 years (extremes: 24-74 years). Proteinuria and hematuria were observed, respectively, in 15 and 14 cases. Six patients revealed arterial hypertension. Crescentic glomerulonephritis was diagnosed with kidney biopsies in ten cases. The etiology of renal disease was microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) in seven cases, Wegener disease in four cases, systemic lupus erythematous in one case, cryoglobulinemia in one case, myeloma in one case and propyl-thiouracil-induced MPA in one case. Hemoptysis occurred in 14 cases. The mean serum level of hemoglobin was 7.1 g/dL (5.1-10 g/dL). The mean serum creatinine concentration was 7.07 mg/dL (2.4-13.7 mg/dL). Gas exchange was severely compromised, with an oxygenation index <80 mmHg in 14 patients and <60 mmHg in seven patients. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 11 cases, and had positive findings for hemorrhage in all. Methylprednisolone pulses and cyclophosphamide were used in 14 patients. Plasmapheresis was performed in three cases. One patient received cycles of Dexamethasome-Melphalan. Three patients died as a result of DAH. The mortality rate in our study was 20%.
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Systematic review of the literature in PubMed using the search terms "Wegener granulomatosis AND Pyoderma gangrenosum" and case report.
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To determine the potential dermal exposure to antineoplastic drugs among hospital pharmacy personnel in a metropolitan area in British Columbia.
Drug-induced pancreatitis is rare (1.4-2%). This report describes a 20-year-old female patient who developed acute pancreatitis while being treated for neurosarcoma of abdominal wall with the ifosfamide and doxorubicin regimen. Although it is unusual, it is important to consider chemotherapeutic agents as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms.
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Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by a proliferation of tumor cells within the lumina of small to medium-sized vessels. Because there are few or no concomitant solid lesions, a diagnosis of IVLBCL usually cannot be established by CT or MR imaging. Herein, we describe a case of IVLBCL involving the uterus, in which (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) was useful for diagnosis. A 47-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of fever and anemia. Laboratory examination demonstrated anemia and thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy showed hemophagocytosis without involvement of lymphoma cells. Random skin biopsy did not demonstrate lymphoma involvement. FDG-PET/CT imaging showed FDG accumulation in the uterus. MR imaging demonstrated uterine leiomyoma only. Based on these findings, uterine endometrial biopsy was performed and histological diagnosis of IVLBCL involving the uterus was established. She received 6 courses of R-CHOP therapy and high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. At present, she remains in complete remission after 33 months.
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In the study period, 68 patients developed SLE. The observed IR (per 100 000 person-years, (CI 95%)) was 6.3 (4.9 to 7.7) for total population; 8.9 (CI 6.6 to 11.2) for women and 2.6 (1.2 to 3.9) for men. On 1 January 2009, 75 prevalent cases were identified. Prevalence rates (cases per 100 000 habitants, (CI 95%)) were 58.6 (46.1 to 73.5) for total population; 83.2 (63.9 to 106.4) for women and 23 (CI 11.9 to 40.1) for men.
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Forty-four female patients with stage II or III breast cancer (aged 47.3 ± 8.1 years) were prospectively enrolled and underwent Ga-NOTA-RGD PET/CT and DCE-MRI imaging. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and underwent surgery. With pretreatment Ga-NOTA-RGD PET/CT, SUVmax of the tumor in the torso (-T) and regional (-R) images were measured. With pretreatment DCE-MRI, the largest diameter of the tumor and maximum enhancement index (EImax; EImax = [highest signal / baseline signal] - 1) of the tumor were assessed.
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To review and discuss the literature on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with haploidentical donors in Brazil.
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Premature cardiovascular mortality related to chemotherapy and occurred in lymphoma survivors before disease progression is one of significant clinical failure of modern hematology. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate early cardiovascular mortality and its predictors in patients treated with the (R)-CHOP regimen.
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To discuss the current role and future perspectives of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) in the management of advanced germ cell tumors (GCTs).