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The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization in livestock and related workers in four Chinese provinces and the characteristics of these isolates.
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Acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes (AOMT) in children commonly presents with otorrhea and negatively affects their daily activities.
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We observed a high prevalence of the cr variant (61.1%) of aac(6')-Ib, and the prevalence of this variant in qnr and aac(6')-Ib-co-harboring isolates (67.4%) was higher than in qnr-negative isolates (51.7%). The high prevalence of the cr variant was significantly related to the high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin, tobramycin, and amikacin and indicated the statistically significant roles of qnrB, qnrS, rmtA, and rmtB in quinolone and aminoglycoside resistance.
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We collected 433 UTI isolates, and the result showed that the susceptibility rates of clinical isolates were all above 80%. Only Klebsiella pneumoniae was fosA positive, with a positive rate of 26.7%. No correlation was found for the resistance between the antibiotic drugs tested and fosfomycin in the other bacteria, except for cefepime, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in Enterobacter cloacae and imipenem in K. pneumoniae.
It is a retrospective study carried out at the Department of Microbiology, Parasitology and Virology Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo. In cooperation with the Microbiological laboratory of the Cantonal Hospital Zenica and the Microbiological laboratory of the General Hospital Tesanj, 3863 urine samples were processed in the period from March 1(st) to March 31(st) 2016.
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We aim to study epidemiologic, clinical and bacterial features of this infection.
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E. coli is the micro-organism most frequently isolated among all of the groups except in the ICU, where it is surpassed by Enterococcus spp. and P. aeruginosa. The resistances among the four population groups studied have different features, overall showing a low rate of resistance to nitrofurantoin and especially to fosfomycin, observed in patients from the Emergency Room or admitted to the ICU and neurological patients.
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An oral ciprofloxacin dose of 10 mg/kg three times daily (30 mg/kg/day) may be a suitable alternative antibiotic for the management of sepsis in severely malnourished children. Absorption was unaffected by the simultaneous administration of feeds.
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In the United States, 19.2% of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates are resistant to ciprofloxacin. We evaluated a real-time PCR assay to predict ciprofloxacin susceptibility using residual DNA from the Roche Cobas 4800 CT/NG assay. The results of the assay were 100% concordant with agar dilution susceptibility test results for 100 clinical isolates. Among 76 clinical urine and swab specimens positive for N. gonorrhoeae by the Cobas assay, 71% could be genotyped. The test took 1.5 h to perform, allowing the physician to receive results in time to make informed clinical decisions.
A series of new bis-1,2,3-triazole linked ciprofloxacin conjugates was designed, synthesized and evaluated in vitro antibacterial activity against a panel of clinically relevant bacteria. A significant part of the compounds displayed enhanced activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species of bacteria as compared to the parent drug. Additionally, negligible toxicity profile of compounds indicates that they may act a good antibiotic in future. Despite relatively small number of synthesized conjugates, it was possible to observe important dependences between their structure and activity.
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Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and ampicillinase C (AmpC) producing Enterobacteriaceae are nowadays frequently isolated in clinical practice. Carbapenems are generally the drugs of choice in such a case and resistance to these molecules is on the rise. Rationalizing their use is to be considered essential, possibly identifying alternative regimens. We thus examined 10 strains of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from patients previously unsuccessfully treated with a beta-lactam or a quinolone; eight strains were either ESBL or AmpC producers. Ulifloxacin showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) lower than ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Tested with the checkerboard method, the association of ulifloxacin and piperacillin/tazobactam proved fully synergistic on five strains and partially synergistic on three. The above association was fully synergistic towards three strains resistant to piperacillin/tazobactam and one strain resistant to ulifloxacin, with MICs in association easily obtainable at standard doses. Our in vitro study demonstrates a synergistic activity of ulifloxacin and piperacillin/tazobactam in association towards ESBL and AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Clinical studies are needed to confirm in vivo the effectiveness of this regimen.
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This study presents a detailed experimental investigation of charge isomers of protonated 4-quinolone antibiotics molecules formed during electrospray ionization (ESI) with proposed dissociation mechanisms after collisional activation. Piperazinyl quinolones have been previously shown to exhibit erratic behavior during tandem MS analyses of biological samples, which originated from varying ratios of two isomeric variants formed during ESI. Here, a combination of ESI-collision-induced dissociation (CID), differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS), high resolution MS, and density functional theory (DFT) was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of isomer formation and their individual dissociation behaviors. The study focused on ciprofloxacin; major findings were confirmed using structurally related 4-quinolones. DFT calculations showed a reversal of basicity for piperazinyl quinolones between liquid and gas phase. We provide an experimental comparison and theoretical treatment of factors influencing the formation ratio of the charge isomers during ESI, including solvent pH, protic/aprotic nature of solvent, and structural effects such as pK a and proton affinity. The actual dissociation mechanisms of the isomers of the protonated molecules were studied by separating the individual isomers via DMS-MS, which allowed type-specific CID spectra to be recorded. Both primary CID reactions of the two charge isomers originated from the same carboxyl group by charge-remote (CO(2) loss) and charge-mediated (H(2)O loss) fragmentation of the piperazinyl quinolones, depending on whether the proton resides on the more basic keto or the piperazinyl group, followed by a number of secondary dissociation reactions. The proposed mechanisms were supported by calculated energies of precursors, transition states, and products for competing pathways.
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Drugs with documented TdP liability (quinidine, haloperidol, domperidone, terfenadine, moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin and dofetilide) produced TdP in the protocol after adrenaline infusion, whereas negative control compounds (verapamil, ranolazine, amiodarone and saline) did not cause TdP arrhythmia, even though increases in repolarization times were observed. TdP were typically preceded by large (greater than -50 ms) negative electro-mechanical windows and were accompanied by aftercontractions.
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To investigate the extent to which clinicians avoid well-established drug-drug interactions associated with warfarin. We hypothesised that clinicians would avoid combining non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), tramadol and sulfamethoxazole with warfarin.
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Antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide, being of special concern in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance in 205 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates from two cohort studies in children <24 months in Lima, Peru.
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Enteric fever due to Salmonella Paratyphi A (SPA) is a global problem occurring as outbreaks at times. An unusual SPA (2,12:a:-) variety durazzo has been reported rarely. We report an outbreak of enteric fever due to this variety affecting 43 individuals. The blood samples grew unusual mucoid, lactose non-fermenting colonies with atypical biochemical reactions in sugar fermentation and amino acid decarboxylation. Isolates had sensitivity to ceftriaxone, chloramphenical, cotrimoxazole, intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid. Identification was confirmed as SPA (2,12:a:-) at the National Salmonella Centre.
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Combinations of selected phytochemicals (reserpine, pyrrolidine, quinine, morin and quercetin) with antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and erythromycin) were tested on the prevention and control of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. The phytochemicals were also studied for their ability to avoid antibiotic adaptation and to inhibit antibiotic efflux pumps. Morin, pyrrolidine and quercetin at subinhibitory concentrations had significant effects in biofilm prevention and/or control when applied alone and combined with antibiotics. Synergism between antibiotics and phytochemicals was found especially against biofilms of NorA overexpressing strain S. aureus SA1199B. This strain when growing with subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin developed increased tolerance to this antibiotic. However, this was successfully reversed by quinine and morin. In addition, reserpine and quercetin showed significant efflux pump inhibition. The overall results demonstrate the role of phytochemicals in co-therapies to promote more efficient treatments and decrease antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics, with substantial effects against S. aureus in both planktonic and biofilm states.
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The trend of total consumption of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, carbapenems, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones significantly increased between 2000 and 2003 and remained stable between 2004 and 2009. The decreasing use of gentamicin and amikacin in recent years was associated with increasing susceptibility of E. coli, E. cloacae, S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa to gentamicin, as well as increasing susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to amikacin. The use of piperacillin/tazobactam was positively correlated with the prevalence of piperacillin/tazobactam-resistant E. coli and S. maltophilia. In contrast, the use of cefotaxime and piperacillin/tazobactam was negatively correlated with the prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant E. coli and piperacillin/tazobactam-resistant S. maltophilia, respectively. The consumption of fluoroquinolones was positively correlated with the rates of ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, piperacillin/tazobactam-resistant P. aeruginosa and ceftazidime-resistant S. maltophilia.
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Coagulase - negative S. aureus(CONS) were the cause of urinary tract infection in 56 out of 1866 outpatient (3%) and 164 of 1261 inpatient (13%), urinary tract infections (p < 0.001). Two hundred and twenty CONS isolates were identified. The most common CONS identified was S. saprophyticus (31%, 68 strains). The relative frequency of Coagulase - negative S. aureuswas 6% (13 strains). All isolates were sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. Resistance was 69% to Ampicillin, 53% to Methicillin, and 37.5% to Ciprofloxacin.
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From 1999 to 2013, early PJIs managed with DAIR were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. The main variables potentially associated with outcome were gathered, and the minimum follow-up was 2 years. For the present study, only patients who were in remission after one debridement and without long-term antibiotic suppression were included. The primary endpoint was implant removal or the need to reintroduce antibiotic treatment due to failure.
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To analyze the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S.aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) as well as the MRSA antimicrobial susceptibility profile isolated in the saliva of health professionals at a large public education hospital.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of isolated bacterial organisms in relation to empiric treatment of neutropenic fever over a 15-year period.
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A simple two-chamber diffusion method was developed to study the diffusion properties of bacteriophages (phages). The apparent diffusion coefficients (D(app)) of Myoviridae phage T4 and filamentous phage fNEL were investigated, and the diffusion of the phages was found to be much slower than the diffusion of three antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, penicillin G, and tetracycline. D(app) of T4 and fNEL in water through filter paper were calculated to be 2.8 x 10⁻¹¹ m²/s and 6.8 x 10⁻¹² m²/s, respectively, and D(app) of fNEL through agarose gel membrane, an artificial biofilm, was also calculated to be smaller than that of T4. In addition, D(app) of phages through agarose gel was dependent on agarose concentration due to the similar size of phage and agarose gel mesh. We concluded that D(app) of phages through an artificial biofilm is dependent on both phage morphology and biofilm density, and suggest the use of this method to study diffusion properties through real biofilms.
Of the 229 patients identified, 173 (75.5%) had community-associated (CA) infections and 56 (24.5%) had healthcare-associated (HCA) infections. Sixty-seven isolates (29.3%) were resistant to CIP, 45 (19.7%) to CTX, and 29 (12.7%) to both CIP and CTX. Multivariate analyses revealed that hematologic disease, chronic kidney disease, a bed-ridden state, indwelling urinary catheter, antibiotic treatment in the preceding 3 months, and isolation of CIP-resistant E. coli in the urine within the preceding 3 months, were significantly associated with resistance to both CIP and CTX.
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The highest percentage (67%) of isolates was from females in comparison to males (33%). The frequency of Escherichia coli was the highest (62%) in culture-positive urine samples, followed by E. faecalis (15%), Candida (14%), Pseudomonas (6%), Klebsiella spp. (1%), Proteus (1%), and Staphylococcus aureus (1%). E. coli was highly resistant to antimicrobial drugs, viz. cephalexin (95%), cephradine (95%), pipemidic acid (92%), amikacin (91%), and nalidixic acid (91%). Most of the routine β-lactam antibiotics like amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, and aztreonam were also ineffective against E. coli, with resistance rates of 84%, 84%, and 72%, correspondingly. This pathogen showed maximum susceptibility (97%) against three drugs, namely imipenem, meropenem, and cefoperazone. Piperacillin and fosfomycin also provided significant results against E. coli with respective susceptibility rates of 96% and 90%.
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To describe and characterize isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis associated to an outbreak of food-borne diseases in Popayán, Cauca.
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Minimum biofilm eradication values of ciprofloxacin obtained in the study are close to the values of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC).
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The burn-injured patient has a major potential to develop an infection because the wound itself, surgical treatment, mechanical ventilation and blood transfusions may potentially lead to a secondary immunodeficiency syndrome.
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Knowledge on the local epidemiology and antibiotic resistance pattern serves as a significant platform in improving the empiric antibiotic therapy for patients with community acquired bacteraemia.
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A total of 146 patients were included, 73 in group I and 73 in group II. Potential factors influencing the incidence of AEs (ie, access route for FNA) were similar in both groups. AEs occurred in 5 of 146 patients (3.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3%-8%): 4 in group I (5.5%; 95% CI, 1.7%-13.7%) and 1 in group II (1.4%; 95% CI, -0.5% to 8.1%) (P = .03). Severity was mild in 1 of 5 patients (20%) and moderate in 3 of 5 patients (60%). One patient with a solid mass in the head of the pancreas had a duodenal perforation after EUS and died after surgery. All other AEs occurred in the first 48 hours and resolved with medical therapy. There were 3 incidents of transient hypoxia and self-limited abdominal pain in 1 and 2 patients, respectively. No patients were lost to follow-up.
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Ligand anchored PSL (TPSL) was prepared by thin film hydration for the combined delivery of Isoniazid (INH) and Ciprofloxacin HCl (CIP HCl) using 4-aminophenyl-α-D mannopyranoside (Man) as surface functionalized ligand and characterized using different parameters.