Bactroban is used to treat certain skin infections such as impetigo and furuncle. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Mupirocin.
Bactroban is an antibiotic ointment that is effective in treating impetigo, and other skin infections that bacteria causes. It is important to note that this ointment will not work on fungal infections or infections caused by viruses.
Bactroban consists of 2 medications: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The first inhibits synthesis of dihydrofolic acid (the substance important for human and bacterial metabolism) while the last blocks next stage of its biochemical cycle: formation of tetrahydrofolic acid which occurs only in microorganisms.
This medication is effective against streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, bacillus dysentery, typhoid fever, E. coli, Proteus, and ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spirochetes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactrim is applied in treatment of pneumonia and other diseases of respiratory, gastrointestinal systems, urogenital systems caused by bacterial infections which develop after surgery and others.
Bactroban is an antibacterial. It works by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.
Bactroban is also known as Mupirocin, Centany.
Generic name of Bactroban is Mupirocin.
Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Bactroban exactly as directed.
Bactroban should be applied directly to the skin.
This ointment is normally applied to the skin 3 times per day, normally for 1 to 2 weeks.
Before you apply the ointment, ensure that the affected area is clean and dry.
Apply a thin film of the ointment to the affected area. After applying the ointment, you may use a gauze to cover the affected area.
Wash your hands immediately after using Bactroban.
If you overdose Bactroban and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of overdose: dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain, headache, yellowing of your skin or eyes, blood in your urine, fainting.
Store at a room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Bactroban are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Bactroban if you are allergic to Bactroban components.
It is not known whether Bactroban will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Do not take Bactroban if you suffer from asthma or have severe kidney or liver disorders.
Do not take Bactroban if you have anemia caused by folic acid deficiency.
Bactroban should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 5 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
Do not drink alcohol or use medicines that may cause drowsiness (e.g., sleep aids, muscle relaxers) while you are using Bactroban; it may add to their effects. Ask your pharmacist if you have questions about which medicines may cause drowsiness.
Do not use Bactroban on large areas of broken or damaged skin, especially if you suffer from reduced kidney function.
Avoid exposure to sunlight or getting tanned.
Do not stop taking Bactroban suddenly.
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We demonstrate that HT61, developed as a topical agent, acts as an enhancer that accelerates the activities of other antimicrobial agents against both MSSA and MRSA.
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Twenty five trials reporting 32 comparisons were identified. Five trials evaluated systemic antibiotics; the remainder evaluated topical preparations: cadexomer iodine (10 trials); povidone iodine (5 trials); peroxide-based preparations (3 trials); ethacridine lactate (1 trial); mupirocin (1 trial); and chlorhexidine (1 trial). For the systemic antibiotics, the only comparison where a statistically significant between-group difference was detected was that in favour of the antihelminthic levamisole when compared with placebo. This trial, in common with the other evaluations of systemic antibiotics, was small and so the observed effect could have occurred by chance or been due to baseline imbalances in prognostic factors. For topical preparations, there is some evidence to suggest that cadexomer iodine generates higher healing rates than standard care. One study showed a statistically significant result in favour of cadexomer iodine when compared with standard care (not involving compression) in the frequency of complete healing at six weeks (RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.74). The intervention regimen used was intensive, involving daily dressing changes, and so these findings may not be generalisable to most everyday clinical settings. When cadexomer iodine was compared with standard care with all patients receiving compression, the pooled estimate from two trials for frequency of complete healing at 4 to 6 weeks indicated significantly higher healing rates for cadexomer iodine (RR 6.72, 95% CI 1.56 to 28.95). Surrogate healing outcomes such as change in ulcer surface area and daily or weekly healing rate showed favourable results for cadexomer iodine, peroxide-based preparations and ethacridine lactate in some studies. These surrogate outcomes may not be valid proxies for complete healing of the wound. Most of the trials were small and many had methodological problems such as poor baseline comparability between groups, failure to use (or report) true randomisation, adequate allocation concealment, blinded outcome assessment and analysis by intention-to-treat.
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We have re-examined the stringent response of Streptococcus rattus and Streptococcus pyogenes, two organisms that had originally been reported not to accumulate ppGpp following amino acid deprivation. We conclude that ppGpp does accumulate when S. rattus and S. pyogenes are deprived of isoleucine by mupirocin addition. The kinetics of ppGpp accumulation was faster in S. pyogenes compared with S. rattus. Cell fractionation and analysis of in vitro ppGpp synthesis showed that in S. pyogenes most activity was associated with the S-100 ribosomal pellet, whereas in S. rattus the S-100 soluble fraction contained greater activity. The addition of 20% methanol or salt-washed ribosomes to the assay mixture did not stimulate the in vitro (p)ppGpp synthesis activity of fractions isolated from S. rattus or S. pyogenes. Western blot analysis of whole-cell extracts with anti-RelA antibody demonstrated that neither organism cross-reacted under conditions that detected RelA in E. coli CF1648. However, cross-reaction with anti-RelSeq antibody was observed in S. pyogenes but not S. rattus, suggesting that ppGpp synthesis is carried out by a putative SpoT protein in S. pyogenes and by a functionally unknown protein in S. rattus.
Retrospective cohort study (2005-2012) SETTING: A large tertiary-care center
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The authors have investigated the activity of ramoplanin against 162 isolates of MRSA from some twenty-six countries around the world. MICs were determined by the plate dilution method in isosensitest agar with an inoculum of 10(6) cfu. MBCs were measured by replication, using velvet pads, from MIC plates after 24 h incubation at 37 degrees C. Time-kill curves were determined from viable counts of cultures in Isosensitest broth (inoculum ca. 5.0 x 10(6) cfu/ml) taken at intervals during shaking culture at 37 degrees C for up to 24 h. Ciprofloxacin, mupirocin, rifampicin, teicoplanin and vancomycin were used as comparison compounds. The following MIC90 (MBC90) values (mg/l) were obtained against a selection of 60 strains: ciprofloxacin 0.8 (1.8), mupirocin 0.27 (19.0), ramoplanin 0.5 (1.0), rifampicin 0.007 (0.01), teicoplanin 1.2 (greater than 32) and vancomycin 2.2 (greater than 32.0). In time-kill experiments, ramoplanin at 20 mg/l and ciprofloxacin at 3.0 mg/l produced 99.9% killing in less than 4h. Mupirocin at 4.0 mg/l was only slowly bactericidal. No resistance was found to mupirocin, ramoplanin, teicoplanin or vancomycin in the 162 isolates tested, whereas ca. 20% resistance was found to ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. The absence of resistance, the high intrinsic activity and the rapid bactericidal effect of ramoplanin against this diverse group of MRSA are very encouraging, and suggest that clinical trials are indicated.
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The genetic analysis of high-level mupirocin resistance (Hi-Mup(r)) in a Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolate from a dog is presented. The Hi-Mup(r) ileS2 gene flanked by a novel rearrangement of directly repeated insertion sequence IS257 elements was located, together with the aminoglycoside resistance aacA-aphD determinant, on a conjugative plasmid related to the pSK41/pGO1 family plasmids.
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We retrospectively identified neonates admitted to a tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from April 1, 2011, through September 30, 2014. We compared rates of MSSA-positive cultures and infections before and after implementation of an active surveillance culture and decolonization intervention for MSSA-colonized neonates. We used 2 measurements to identify the primary outcome, NICU-attributable MSSA: (1) any culture sent during routine clinical care that grew MSSA and (2) any culture that grew MSSA and met criteria of the National Healthcare Safety Network's healthcare-associated infection surveillance definitions. S. aureus isolates were tested for mupirocin susceptibility. We estimated incidence rate ratios using interrupted time-series models.
Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is an antimicrobial agent used in hygiene products, plastics and kitchenware, and for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks. S. aureus strains with low-level resistance to triclosan have emerged. It has been claimed that strains with decreased susceptibility to biocides may also be less susceptible to antibiotics. We tested the susceptibility of S. aureus clinical isolates to triclosan and several antibiotics. Triclosan MICs ranged between 0.025 and 1 mg/L. Some, but not all, strains were resistant to several antibiotics and showed low-level triclosan resistance. S. aureus mutants with enhanced resistance to triclosan (< or =1 mg/L) were isolated. In several cases this resistance was stably inherited in the absence of triclosan. These mutants were not more resistant than the parent strain to several antibiotics. Changes in triclosan MICs associated with the acquisition of a plasmid encoding mupirocin resistance were not observed, suggesting that the triclosan/mupirocin co-resistance seen in a previous study was not the result of a single resistance gene or separate genes on the same plasmid. The continuous exposure of a triclosan-sensitive S. aureus strain to sub-MIC concentrations of triclosan for 1 month did not result in decreased susceptibility to triclosan or to several antibiotics tested. Triclosan-induced potassium leakage and bactericidal effects on a triclosan-sensitive strain, a resistant strain and a strain selected for increased resistance were compared with those of non-growing organisms, exponentially growing organisms and organisms in the stationary phase. No significant differences between the strains were observed under these conditions despite their different MICs. Biocides have multiple target sites and so MICs often do not correlate with bactericidal activities. The ability of S. aureus to develop resistance to triclosan and the current view that triclosan may have a specific target in Escherichia coli, namely enoyl reductase, underline the need for more research on the mechanisms of action and resistance.
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In this work, we describe a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes harbored by some Staphylococcus aureus isolates and for the simultaneous identification of such isolates at the species level. Conditions were optimized for the simultaneous detection of the 310-, 456-, and 651-bp regions of the mecA (encoding high-level methicillin resistance), ileS-2 (encoding high-level mupirocin resistance), and femB (encoding a factor essential for methicillin resistance) genes, respectively, from a single colony in a single reaction tube. The femB PCR fragment allows the specific identification of S. aureus. Validation of the method was performed using 50 human isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the appropriate control strains. This assay offers a rapid, simple, feasible, specific, sensitive, and accurate identification of mupirocin-resistant MRSA clinical isolates and could be systematically applied as a diagnostic test in clinical microbiology laboratories, facilitating the design and use of antibiotic therapy.
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Cost-effectiveness analysis based on results of an intervention study with historical controls.
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The skin of the fruit and the bark of Punica granatum are used as a traditional remedy against diarrhea, dysentery, and intestinal parasites. The fruit skin extract of P. granatum was tested for its wound healing activity in rats using an excision wound model. The animals were divided into three groups of six each. The experimental group of animals was topically treated with P. granatum at a dose of 100 mg/kg every day for 15 days, while the controls and standard group animals were treated with petroleum jelly and mupirocin ointment, respectively. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of saponins, triterpenes, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides. Extract-treated animals exhibited 95% reduction in the wound area when compared with controls (84%), which was statistically significant (P<.01). The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelize faster compared with controls. The hydroxyproline content of extract-treated animals was significantly higher than controls (P<.05). The fruit skin extract did not show any antimicrobial activity against the microrganisms tested. P. granatum promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested.
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Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in ventilated critically ill patients.
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To investigate the efficacy of a potent novel antimicrobial protein of mass 6 kDa, epidermicin NI01, for eradicating the nasal burden of MRSA in a cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) model.
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Three hospitals with universal surveillance for MRSA; at their physician's discretion, colonized patients could be treated with a 5-day course of nasal mupirocin calcium 2%, twice daily, plus chlorhexidine gluconate 4% every second day.
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Five days of whole-body washing with either 4% chlorhexidine solution (treatment group) or with a placebo solution. All patients received mupirocin nasal ointment and chlorhexidine mouth rinse. The outcome was evaluated 3, 4, 5, 9, and 30 days after treatment with swab samples taken from several body sites.
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Prospective, double-arm, blinded clinical trial of 37 eyes of 37 patients undergoing intraocular surgery (cataract extraction or pars plana vitrectomy) randomized to either control or mupirocin treatment groups. Treated patients received mupirocin nasal ointment twice daily for 5 days prior to surgery. Nasal cultures were obtained in all patients. All patients received a standard 5% povidone-iodine preparation before the surgical procedure, and conjunctival cultures were obtained in all patients before and after the povidone-iodine preparation.
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The benefit of screening healthcare workers (HCWs) at risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage and furloughing MRSA-positive HCWs to prevent spread to patients is controversial. We evaluated our MRSA program for HCWs between 1992 and 2002.
Bacterial skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) are among the most frequently seen infectious entities in the community setting and occasionally in the institutional setting. A wide variety of SSSIs exist, with cellulitis, impetigo and folliculitis being the most common. Most SSSIs are caused by aerobic staphylococci and streptococci, with aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and anaerobes being involved in more complicated infections. Systemic therapy with a variety of beta-lactams, macrolides and lincosamides (clindamycin) have been the cornerstone of SSSI therapy for many years. With the exception of mupirocin, topical therapy occupies a small therapeutic niche. Despite the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among the pathogens most commonly associated with SSSIs (for example, Streptococcus pyogenes and macrolides; Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin, vancomycin, penicillin and mupirocin), few treatment failures have been reported. The newest antimicrobials reviewed herein (linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin and moxifloxacin) are not a significant improvement upon older agents in the treatment of SSSIs. Perhaps this assessment will change if the penetrance of the antimicrobial resistance patterns described above reach a critical threshold and clinical failures become more widespread.
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The study was approved by Johns Hopkins University IRB in June 2014 (IRB number 00092982). Protocol V.7 was approved in November 2014. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals.
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Although controversial, prophylactic mupirocin in all NICU infants has acted as a barrier to colonization and markedly decreased S. aureus infection rates over a 5-year period.
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important colonizer in animals and an opportunistic pathogen in humans. In humans, MRSA can cause infections that might be difficult to treat because of antimicrobial resistance. The use of bacteriophages has been suggested as a potential approach for the control of MRSA colonization to minimize the-often occupational-exposure of humans. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of bacteriophage treatment on porcine nasal colonization with MRSA in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. The effectiveness of a bacteriophage combination of phage K*710 and P68 was assessed in vitro by incubating them with MRSA V0608892/1 (ST398) measuring the OD600 hourly. To study the in vivo effect, bacteriophages were administered in a gel developed for human application, which contain 109 plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL (K and P68 in a 19.25:1 ratio) for 5 days to piglets (N = 8) that were experimentally colonized with the MRSA strain. Eight piglets experimentally colonized were used as a negative control. The MRSA strain was also used to colonize porcine nasal mucosa explants and bacteriophages were applied to assess the ex vivo efficacy of treatment. Bacteriophages were effective in vitro. In vivo, sixteen piglets were colonized with MRSA but the number of CFU recovered after the application of the bacteriophages in 8 piglets was not reduced compared to the control animals (approx. 105 CFU/swab). In the ex vivo model, 108 CFU were used to establish colonization with MRSA; a reduction of colonization was not observed after application of bacteriophages. However, application of mupirocin both in vivo and ex vivo resulted in a near eradication of MRSA.
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In total, 1966 residents were treated with 2046 antimicrobials. Empirical treatments were most common (54.4% of all antimicrobial therapies; prevalence: 3.39 per 100 eligible residents), followed by prophylactic (28.8%; prevalence: 1.87%) and microbiologically documented (16.1%; prevalence: 1.01%) regimes. MRSA decolonisation with nasal mupirocin (0.7%; prevalence: 0.02%) was uncommon. Antimicrobials were most frequently prescribed for the prevention or treatment of urinary (49.5%; prevalence: 3.23%) and respiratory (31.8%; prevalence: 1.81%) tract infections. A very high proportion of uroprophylaxis was reported (25.6% of all prescribed antimicrobials; prevalence: 1.67%).
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Mupirocin inhibits the activity of bacterial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase resulting in a decrease or cessation of protein synthesis. Expression of resistance in staphylococci has been divided arbitrarily into two groups, low level (minimum inhibitory concentrations [MIC] of between 8 and 256 mg/L) and high level (MICs of > or = 512 mg/L). Low level resistance is associated with spontaneous mutational events, while high level resistance is mediated by a large transferable plasmid. The introduction of a nasal formulation of mupirocin raises many issues concerning staphylococcal breakpoints, since 20,000 mg/L is applied to the mucosal surface to eradicate nasal colonisation with staphylococci, as opposed to eliminating infection. For several years after its introduction reports of resistance in staphylococci were rare. However, the contemporary literature indicates reports of resistance in select populations, particularly associated with dermatology patients. The overall rate of resistance for organisms isolated from the nares is currently unknown. The recent introduction of the E test combined with the 5 microgram screening disk may assist in determining resistance rates in large populations.
Previously, we described a small quinoline-derived compound that exhibited selective bactericidal activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). It depolarizes the bacterial cell membrane. In this study, we investigated if HT61 was able to enhance the potency of other antibiotics, namely neomycin, gentamicin and mupirocin, and an antiseptic, namely chlorhexidine, against clinical isolates of MSSA and MRSA in vitro and in vivo.
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We conclude that 1) the results of the initial screening of 50 refugees did not predict the succeding high incidence of MRSA; 2) the usual treatment with mupirocin nasal ointment and chlorhexidine wash did not prevent either reinfection or spread of MRSA in the refugee centre; 3) the rigorous isolation and screening strategy at DHR prevented the spread of MRSA to other patients and staff.
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The literature search resulted in 211 hits, of which 4 articles met the inclusion criteria. Among the 686 mupirocin-treated surgical patients with S. aureus nasal carriage, there were 25 S. aureus infections (3.6%), compared with 46 (6.7%) in the controls (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.89; P = 0.02).
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has increased at an alarming rate in the recent past and has major cost implications. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of a policy of pre-operative MRSA prophylaxis on the incidence of MRSA infection in patients undergoing liver resection.
Purpose To evaluate the in vitro efficacy of several anti-staphylococcal agents against a nationwide collection of contemporary Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates from several healthcare centres in Greece. Methods Thirty hospitals throughout Greece (18 in Attica) provided all clinical isolates of S.aureus from April 2012 to May 2013 to a central lab to be re-submitted to susceptibility testing. The MICs were evaluated by Vitek® 2 with the exception of ceftaroline (OXOID M.I.C. Evaluator™). Vancomycin and daptomycin MICs were also evaluated by Etest®. Heterogeneously vancomycin-intermediate strains (hVISA) were detected by the Etest® GRD. VISA phenotype was confirmed by PAP-AUC. Results A total of 1005 isolates (39% MRSA) were studied. Susceptibility rates were: erythromycin 66.5%, clindamycin 79.2%, SXT 98.9%, rifampicin 97.3%, fusidic acid 67%, moxifloxacin 78.8%, vancomycin 99.9%, ceftaroline 92.9% and linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin 100%. For mupirocin, high level resistance could be excluded for 98.9% of isolates. Vancomycin Etest® MIC50/90 were 1.5/1.5 mg/L, 58.5% of isolates exhibited a MIC > 1 and 8.7% a MIC of 2 mg/L, while Vitek® MIC50/90 were 1/1 and 3.1% showed MIC > 1 mg/L. One VISA strain was detected. Among the selected 175 isolates that were screened for hVISA phenotype, six (3.4%) were positive. In 315 bloodstream isolates, 64.1% had a vancomycin Etest® MIC > 1 mg/L. Conclusions This multi-centre surveillance study revealed that a significant percentage of contemporary S.aureus isolates from Greek patients have a vancomycin MIC (> 1 mg/L) that may compromise the clinical efficacy of the drug for the treatment of serious infections. The in vitro activity of SXT, rifampicin, mupirocin, linezolid, tigecycline, daptomycin and ceftaroline remains excellent.
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To investigate the prevalence, the antibiotic resistance pattern and the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus isolates from the anterior nostrils of patients of general practitioners (GPs) were analysed. Insight into the S. aureus population structure is essential, as nasal carriers of S. aureus are at increased risk of developing an S. aureus infection. S. aureus was isolated from nasal swabs from 2691 patients with no sign of an infection collected in 29 GP practices in The Netherlands. The susceptibility pattern for several classes of antibiotics was determined, as well as the S. aureus genetic background, using spa typing. S. aureus was isolated from 617 of the 2691 (23%) nasal swabs. The prevalences of resistance to ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, fusidic acid, macrolides and mupirocin were 0.2%, 0%, 6%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Half of the isolates were associated with a genetic background common to the major methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones, e.g. clonal complex (CC)1, CC5, CC8, CC22, CC30 and CC45, and the remainder were mainly associated with CC7, CC12, CC15, CC26, CC51 and CC101. The low prevalences of resistance suggest that, in the Dutch situation, S. aureus isolates from patients visiting their GP because of complaints not related to infection do not represent a large reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Although no MRSA isolates were found, the genetic background of some of the S. aureus isolates is commonly observed among community-associated (CA)-MRSA clones (CC1, CC8 and CC30), and this might suggest that these isolates have the potential to become CA-MRSA.
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Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome was diagnosed in two infants in the NICU: Case I (a 47-day-old, formerly 530-g female); and Case II diagnosed 48 h later (a 41-day old, formerly 706-g female). Multiple infection control measures were implemented: (1) isolation and intravenous antibiotic treatment of cases; (2) placement of exposed infants into a cohort; (3) prophylactic mupirocin treatment of the anterior nares of all infants in the NICU and staff colonized with Staphylococcus aureus; and (4) personnel hand washing with hexachlorophene. Detection of exfoliative toxin A and studies to determine the genetic relatedness of S. aureus strains isolated from patients and staff were performed.
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SR of RCT and RCT on treatments aiming at preventing peritoneal dialysis peritonitis were identified referring to a Cochrane Library and Renal Health Library search (2005 update). Quality of SR and RCT was assessed according to current methodological standards.
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The isolations of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 7.88% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolated. Less than half of the strains (44.87%) had a nosocomial origin and were most often isolated in the exudates of wounds. With respect to the pattern of resistance, there was some 50% of resistance to erythromycin, some 43.60% to clindamycine and some 21.79% to mupirocin.
During the routine surveillance culture period (February to December 2005; 48 weeks), 46 neonates were found to be positive for MRSA and were treated with mupirocin. After December 2005, the outbreak was controlled, but the ongoing spread was not eradicated; 9 sporadic MRSA cases were detected by clinical culture up to August 2007.
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