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Avapro (Irbesartan)

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Avapro is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of hypertension, kidney disease in patients with high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes and heart failure. Avapro acts by lowering high blood pressure.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Irbesartan.


Avapro is a perfect remedy in struggle against hypertension, kidney disease in patients with high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes and heart failure. Target of Avapro is to lower high blood pressure.

Avapro acts by lowering high blood pressure.

Avapro is also known as Irbesartan, Approvel, Aprovel, Irovel, Karvea.

Generic name of Avapro is Irbesartan.

Brand names of Avapro are Avapro, Avalide containing Irbesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide.


Take Avapro tablets orally with or without food.

Do not crush or chew it.

Take Avapro at the same time once a day.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Avapro suddenly.


If you overdose Avapro and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Avapro are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Avapro if you are allergic to Avapro components.

Be careful with Avapro if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Try to be careful using Avapro if you take a diuretic (water pill), salt substitutes or potassium supplements, other blood pressure medicines.

It can be dangerous to use Avapro if you suffer from or have a history of congestive heart failure, high levels of potassium in your blood, liver disease, and kidney disease.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Avapro suddenly.

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In type 2 diabetics with hypertension and either uncontrolled or no previous antihypertensive therapy a change to treatment with irbesartan or irbesartan/HCTZ for 3 months resulted in a distinct reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, with concomitant effective reductions of pulse pressure and microalbuminuria.

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The average vasodilator response to irbesartan was 174 +/- 33 ml/min. No correlation was found between renal plasma flow response to irbesartan and duration of diabetes, baseline glucose, or HbA1c level. BMI, our measure of obesity, was highly correlated to the renal response to irbesartan (r = 0.7; P = 0.01).

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The novel antihypertensive agent, omapatrilat, is both an inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme. This study investigated the effects of omapatrilat in comparison with an angiotensin I-receptor antagonist/diuretic combination on blood pressure, endothelial function and cardiac hypertrophy in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP).

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Male Sprague-Dawley rats, Balb/c mice, and C57Bl6/J mice.

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The Irbesartan in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria (IRMA 2) study was a 2-year multicenter randomized double-blind trial comparing irbesartan (150 and 300 mg once daily) with placebo. We studied a subgroup of 50 patients where urine samples were available for analysis of albumin and the oxidatively modified guanine nucleosides 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo).

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122 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. After 12 weeks of treatment the reduction of systolic BP with NH was significantly greater than IH (-25.8 ± 12 vs -21.2 ± 14 mm Hg, P < 0.03). Diastolic BP reduction was significantly greater with NH after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment but similar at the end of the study (or after 12 weeks). In contrast, the magnitude of the 24-h, daytime, and nighttime systolic and diastolic BP reduction was almost similar in the two groups, while heart rate reduction induced by NH was significantly (P < 0.001) greater during the 24-h, daytime, and nighttime period than that induced by IH. NH caused a reduction in 24-h BP variability significantly greater than IH (standard deviation -4.4 ± 2.7 vs -2.2 ± 5.1 mm Hg, P < 0.02, variation coefficient -2.0 ± 2.6 vs -0.3 ± 3.4%, P < 0.01). Both treatment regimens were well tolerated.

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In this prospective, randomized, parallelized, controlled and fixed combined therapy trial, 99 female patients (aged 18 to 60) with grade 1 and grade 2 hypertension (BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg and < 179/109 mm Hg, 1 mm Hg = 0.133 kPa) were assigned to felodipine 5 mg q.d + irbesartan 150 mg q.d (F + I group, n = 49) and felodipine 5 mg q.d + metoprolol 47.5 mg q.d (F + M group, n = 50) group. Target blood pressure was < 140/90 mm Hg. The female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire, levels of serum estradiol and testosterone were assessed. Female sexual dysfunction was defined as a FSFI score of less than 25.5. Patients were followed up for 24 weeks.

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Evidence-based guidelines for the management of hypertension are now well established. Studies have shown that more than 60% of patients with hypertension will require two or more drugs to achieve current treatment targets.

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Totally 145 type 2 diabetic patients with AS were included in this study. According to completely randomized open unbalanced design, the patients were assigned into ACEI group (n=99) with ramipril treatment (starting dose of 2.5 mg/d and gradually reaching 5 mg/d), ARB group (n=25) with irbesartan treatment (with gradual increase of doses till reaching the maximum daily dose of 150 mg), and control group (n=21) without the above medication. After a treatment lasting for 3 months, the brachial artery endothelial function was evaluated with two-dimensional ultrasonography.

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The efficacy of angiotensin (AT) II antagonists in lowering blood pressure was summarized in a meta-analysis including 43 trials and a total of 11,281 patients. The four AT II antagonist classes losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, and candesartan were studied and achieved a mean reduction in systolic blood pressure between 10.4 und 11.8 mmHg and in diastolic blood pressure between 8.2 und 8.9 mmHg. The effectiveness of AT II antagonist therapy in reducing clinical events such as stroke or end-stage renal disease in hypertension and associated conditions was shown in a number of large trials. Also, less adverse events were reported for AT II antagonist therapy compared to other antihypertensive medication such as beta blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. However, the number of trials is still comparatively small. Several ongoing trials will provide further insight into the effectiveness of AT II antagonist therapy.

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To compare the effects between felodipine plus irbesartan and felodipine plus metoprolol regimen on blood pressure and the sexual function in young and middle-aged hypertensive women.

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CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms markedly affected the pharmacokinetics of irbesartan in this study sample. The CYP2C9 3 and CYP2C9 13 alleles appear to be associated with the decreased metabolism of irbesartan.

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Systolic and diastolic central blood pressure, as well as brachial arterial pressure, decreased to a similar extent after both treatments. Similar changes in endothelial function between groups were detected at the end of the study. A significant reduction in pulse wave velocity, central blood pressure, and augmentation index adjusted for heart rate, was found in both the treatment groups at the end of the study, without significant differences between groups.

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Arterial pressure was similarly reduced by treatments. GFR was lower in L-NAME-treated rats than in controls (552 +/- 52 versus 1106 +/- 78 microl/min per g KW), whereas RPF was reduced to a larger extent, thus resulting in an increase in filtration fraction. GFR was normalized by irbesartan but not enalapril or the combination (1042 +/- 50, 790 +/- 79 and 725 +/- 38 microl/min per g KW, respectively). RPF returned to normal and filtration fraction fell markedly with the combination. All treatments reduced the lesions of preglomerular vessels and reversed L-NAME-induced albuminuria and cardiovascular hypertrophy. At a dose of 3 mg/kg per 24 h, irbesartan only reduced the lesions of the afferent arteriole.

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The present study assessed the cost effectiveness of irbesartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, and amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker, in the treatment of Canadian patients with diabetic nephropathy and hypertension.

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Accumulating evidence suggests a cardioprotective role of pacing postconditioning (PPC) maneuvers in animal models and more recently in humans. The procedure however remains to be optimized and its interaction with physiological systems remains to be further explored. The renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a dual role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The interaction between RAS and PPC induced cardiac protection is however not clearly understood. We have recently demonstrated that angiotensin (1-7) via Mas receptor played a significant role in PPC mediated cardiac protection against I/R injury.

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The study comprised of 160 patients (mean age: 55.6±9.6 years), who had Stage 1 or 2 hypertension according to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and have not been receiving antihypertensive therapy. The patients were assigned to treatment groups; irbesartan (n=80) and nebivolol (n=80). The patients were clinically and echocardiographically reevaluated on the 6th and 12th months after the onset of treatment.

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This article provides information and a commentary on trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of heart failure presented at the Heart Failure Society of America and the American Heart Association meetings in 2008. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, as analyses may change in the final publication. (i) SADHART-CHF showed no difference in outcome for heart failure patients with depression treated with sertraline compared with placebo. (ii) A controlled release carvedilol formulation showed similar LV haemodynamic effects to the standard carvedilol formulation in the COMPARE study. (iii) A post hoc analysis of the MOMENTUM study suggested that patients with less severe heart failure may be more likely to benefit from a continuous aortic flow augmentation device. (iv) A thyroid hormone analogue was poorly tolerated in patients with heart failure. (v) HF-ACTION showed that exercise training is safe and offers modest clinical benefits in patients with heart failure. (vi) Irbesartan failed to improve outcomes in patients with preserved ejection fraction in the I-PRESERVE study. (vii) A phase II study of beta-interferon administration in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy showed encouraging results. (viii) The BACH study showed that mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin was more accurate than BNP or NT-proBNP at predicting outcome at 90 days in patients with acute heart failure. (ix) A secondary analysis from ATHENA showed a reduction in cardiovascular hospitalizations and strokes for patients with atrial fibrillation receiving dronedarone compared with placebo.

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Cholesterol and blood pressure lowering therapies are effective in the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

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The angiotensin II (AII) antagonistic action of azilsartan (AZL) [2-ethoxy-1-{[2'-(5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl}-1H-benzimidazole-7-carboxylic acid] was investigated in radioligand binding and function studies. AZL inhibited the specific binding of ¹²⁵I-Sar¹-Ile⁸-AII to human angiotensin type 1 receptors with an IC₅₀ of 2.6 nM. The inhibitory effect of AZL persisted after washout of the free compound (IC(50) value of 7.4 nM). Olmesartan, telmisartan, valsartan, and irbesartan also inhibited the specific binding with IC₅₀ values of 6.7, 5.1, 44.9, and 15.8 nM, respectively. However, their inhibitory effects were markedly attenuated with washout (IC₅₀ values of 242.5, 191.6, >10,000, and >10,000 nM). AZL also inhibited the accumulation of AII-induced inositol 1-phosphate (IP1) in the cell-based assay with an IC₅₀ value of 9.2 nmol; this effect was resistant to washout (IC₅₀ value of 81.3 nM). Olmesartan and valsartan inhibited IP1 accumulation with IC₅₀ values of 12.2 and 59.8 nM, respectively. The activities of these compounds were markedly reduced after washout (IC₅₀ value of 908.5 and 22,664.4 nM). AZL was defined as an inverse agonist in an experiment by using a constitutively active mutant of human angiotensin type 1 receptors. In isolated rabbit aortic strips, AZL reduced the maximal contractile response to AII with a pD'₂ value of 9.9. The inhibitory effects of AZL on contractile responses induced by AII persisted after the strips were washed; these inhibitory effects were more potent than those of olmesartan. These results suggest that AZL is a highly potent and slowly dissociating AII receptor blocker. Its tight receptor binding might be expected to produce potent and long-lasting antihypertensive effects in preclinical and clinical settings.

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The study included 756 patients, 621 with the Val/Val genotype and 135 with the Val/Met+Met/Met genotypes. There were no significant differences in age, body mass index, sex, education level, occupation, alcohol consumption, or smoking status between the 2 groups. Patients with the Val/Met+Met/Met genotypes had a significantly lower mean baseline DBP compared with those with the Val/Val genotype (adjusted regression coefficient [SE]: -2.5 [1.0] mm Hg; P = 0.012) and significantly lower mean steady-state plasma trough irbesartan concentrations (adjusted regression coefficient: -12.6 [4.1]; P = 0.002). No significant association was found between antihypertensive efficacy and Val7Met polymorphism in the overall population, but in an analysis by baseline DBP status, patients with the Val/Met+Met/Met genotype a baseline DBP > or =100 mm Hg had significantly smaller reductions in DBP (adjusted regression coefficient: -5.7 [1.4] mm Hg; P < 0.001) and SBP compared with those with the Val/Val genotype and a baseline DBP > or =100 mm Hg (adjusted regression coefficient: -9.8 [2.9] mm Hg; P < 0.001).

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Stimulation of the HSCs with AngII results in EGR-1 activation via the ERK1/2 pathway, leading to up-regulation of PDGF-B expression.

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Aliskiren 150, 300 and 600 mg and irbesartan 150 mg significantly reduced mean cuff sitting systolic BP (SBP) from baseline (p < 0.001 vs. placebo). Aliskiren 150, 300 and 600 mg significantly reduced geometric mean PRA by 69%, 71% and 75% from baseline respectively (p < 0.05 vs. placebo). Irbesartan 150 mg significantly increased PRA by 109% (p < 0.05 vs. placebo). Aliskiren dose-dependently increased PRC from baseline by 157%, 246% and 497%, at 150, 300 and 600 mg respectively, compared with a 9% decrease with placebo (p < 0.05). PRC increased significantly more with aliskiren 300 and 600 mg compared with irbesartan 150 mg (105%; p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed no significant correlations between baseline PRA and changes in SBP in any of the treatment groups, but interestingly, the slopes of the regression lines between changes in SBP and log-transformed baseline PRA were +2.0 for placebo and -1.5, -1.8 and -2.3 for aliskiren 150, 300 and 600 mg respectively. The slope for irbesartan 150 mg (-1.4) was similar to that for aliskiren 150 mg.

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This prospective, matched case-control study was conducted between November 2001 and December 2002 among 14 type 1 diabetic patients with early signs of angiopathy (ages 14-21 years), 11 type 1 diabetic patients without angiopathy (ages 12-22 years), and 10 healthy volunteers (ages 16-22 years). Skin fibroblasts were obtained by skin biopsies from the anterior part of the forearm and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. The activity and mRNA expression of CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were measured before and after 6 months of treatment with irbesartan (150 mg/day); on both occasions, antioxidant enzyme activity was evaluated at different glucose concentrations (5 and 22 mmol/l).

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Acupuncture combined with small dose of medicine and simple medicine have a same therapeutic effect on renal hypertension of chronic kidney disease, but with prolongation of treatment time, the therapeutic effect and advantages of the combined acupuncture and medicine therapy were superior to the medication.

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Chronic blockade of NO production induces hypertension and early occlusive and fibrotic end-stage organ damage owing to vascular lesions in the brain, kidney, and heart. In this study, we evaluated the inflammatory phenotypic changes induced in the arterial wall by chronic N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administration and the effect of an angiotensin II receptor (AT1) antagonist, irbesartan, on these changes. For this purpose, 2 groups of rats received L-NAME in the drinking water (50 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) for 2 months. One group received no other treatment and the other was treated with irbesartan (10 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). A third group (controls) received neither L-NAME nor irbesartan. After 8 weeks, plasma, aortas, and left ventricles were sampled from all 3 groups. Expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was evaluated at both the mRNA (quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and the protein (Western blot and immunohistochemistry) level in the aorta. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry; inflammatory cell infiltration by immunohistochemistry; and fibrosis by Sirius red staining. Chronic L-NAME administration induced the expression of iNOS in the aorta, which was localized in smooth muscle cells as shown by immunohistochemistry and NADPH diaphorase activity. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression was also increased in aortas of L-NAME-treated rats. These phenotypic changes of the vascular wall were associated with inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis in the heart. All of these pathological phenomena were prevented by the angiotensin II antagonist irbesartan. The proinflammatory phenotypic changes of the vascular wall induced by blockade of NOS activity could be involved in the interaction between endothelial dysfunction and the development of arteriosclerosis.

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This multicenter, three-armed, open-labeled study investigated patient compliance of patients receiving irbesartan, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or calcium-channel blockers (CCB) for essential hypertension for a 6-month period. Patients were either newly diagnosed or switched from existing antihypertensive medication due to lack of efficacy or side-effects.

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Severe hypertension is difficult to control. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter trial compared efficacy and safety of once-daily irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination therapy with irbesartan monotherapy in severe hypertension. Patients who were untreated or uncontrolled on monotherapy (seated diastolic blood pressure [BP] > or =110 mm Hg) received fixed-dose irbesartan 150 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg combination therapy for 7 weeks, force-titrated to irbesartan 300 mg/HCTZ 25 mg at week 1 (n=468); or irbesartan 150 mg monotherapy, force-titrated to 300 mg at week 1 (n=269). Significantly more patients on combination therapy achieved seated diastolic BP <90 mm Hg at week 5 (primary end point) compared with monotherapy recipients (47.2% vs 33.2%; P=.0005). Likewise, significantly more patients attained goals per the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) (<140/90 mm Hg) at week 5 (34.6% vs 19.2%, respectively; P<.0001), while the mean difference between combination and monotherapy in seated diastolic BP and seated systolic BP was 4.7 mm Hg and 9.7 mm Hg (P<.0001). Greater and more rapid BP reduction with irbesartan/HCTZ was achieved without additional side effects.

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To investigate the interactive effect of plasma irbesartan concentration and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGT1R) gene polymorphisms on blood pressure (BP) response to irbesartan treatment.

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Effect of irbesartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, was studied in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic nephropathy. Polyuria, proteinuria, blood urea, creatinine clearance, and urinary electrolytes were determined to assess kidney damage. There was a significant increase in urine volume, urinary protein and blood urea in STZ induced diabetic rats. On the other hand, irbesartan treatment resulted in a significant reduction in urinary protein and blood urea in these rats. Irbesartan treatment also improved creatinine clearance and exhibited a natriuretic effect in these animals. Results suggest that irbesartan treatment ameliorate STZ induced diabetic nephropathic changes, in rats.

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In this study, we showed that irbesartan, which has not only AT1aR-blocking effects, but also PPARγ agonistic effects accompanied by HGF expression, inhibited organ damage by aldosterone and salt treatment. Second-generation ARBs such as irbesartan, which has the dual actions of AT1R blockade and PPARγ activation, may have clinical value for the treatment of hypertensive patients with aldosterone breakthrough.

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A multicenter open-label randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of combining the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril and the angiotensin II receptor blocker irbesartan with that of each drug in monotherapy (at both high and equipotent doses) in slowing the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

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The observation that the pharmacological inhibitors of the NTCP transporter could block HBV entry suggests that NTCP represents an attractive molecular target for therapeutic intervention in HBV infection.

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Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is associated with faster decline in kidney function and the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, little is known about the impact of treatment on plasma and urinary levels of suPAR. We aimed to investigate the impact of renin angiotensin system (RAS) single and dual blockade on suPAR levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled crossover trial. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed for suPAR levels. The placebo period was considered reference and all treatment periods were compared to placebo. Patients (n = 22) were treated for 2-month periods with either placebo, irbesartan 300 mg once daily, aliskiren 300 mg once daily or irbesartan/aliskiren combination in random order. Placebo geometric mean plasma (SEM) levels of suPAR were 3.3 ng/mL (1.1) and urine levels were 4.0 ng/mL (1.1). None of the treatments had significant effects on plasma levels of suPAR compared to placebo. Compared to placebo, irbesartan and combination treatment decreased urinary levels of suPAR significantly (-1.3 ng/mL), while aliskiren did not. In patients with type 2 diabetes urinary levels of suPAR were reduced during RAS blockade treatment, which may contribute to renoprotection.

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Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, is common in patients with hypertension. Chronic renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation, shown by elevated plasma renin activity (PRA), is implicated in many of the features of metabolic syndrome. The direct renin inhibitor aliskiren may be of benefit in this patient group as aliskiren targets the RAAS at the rate-limiting step. In this double-blind study, 141 patients with hypertension (mean baseline BP 155/93 mm Hg) and metabolic syndrome (modified National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III criteria) were randomized to aliskiren 300 mg or irbesartan 300 mg once daily. Patients treated with aliskiren 300 mg had their mean sitting blood pressure (BP) lowered by 13.8/7.1 mm Hg after 12 weeks, significantly greater (P≤0.001) than the 5.8/2.8 mm Hg reduction observed in patients treated with irbesartan 300 mg. A significantly greater proportion of patients treated with aliskiren achieved BP control to <135/85 mm Hg (29.2 vs 16.7% with irbesartan; P=0.019). Aliskiren treatment led to a 60% decrease in PRA from baseline, whereas irbesartan increased PRA by 99% (both P<0.001). Aliskiren and irbesartan had similar effects on glucose and lipid profiles and on a panel of biomarkers of inflammation and cardiovascular risk. Both aliskiren and irbesartan were well tolerated. Collectively, these results suggest that aliskiren 300 mg may offer treatment benefits compared with irbesartan 300 mg for BP reduction in patients with hypertension and metabolic syndrome.

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Ovariectomized and sham-ovariectomized SHRs were treated with 50 mg/kg irbesartan per day, administered with chow for 30 weeks. Sham-ovariectomized and ovariectomized rats receiving no treatment were used as control groups. At the end of the treatment period, the vascular reactivity of aortic rings was studied.

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124 ISH patients aged 69.1 ± 5.1 years (mean ± SD) were enrolled by 13 general practitioners in Netherlands and Belgium and randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive either NH (5/12.5 mg day, n = 62) or IH (150/12.5 buy avapro  mg day, n = 62) for a 12-week period. The primary efficacy endpoint of the study was the comparison of the two combinations in terms of sitting office systolic blood pressure (BP) reduction after 12 weeks of treatment. In addition ambulatory BP, 24-h BP variability, tolerability, and safety profile were also investigated.

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Swiss mice were subjected to regular salt (RS) diet (0.6% NaCl), HS diet (4% NaCl), and HS plus irbesartan (50 mg/kg/day) or ramipril (1 mg/kg/day). After 8 weeks, arterial pressure was similar in all buy avapro groups and similar to baseline, whereas left ventricle/body weight ratio was higher in HS mice than in RS mice (P < 0.005). There were also significant increases in collagen density, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 receptor) density, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in the left ventricle. Interestingly, increases in wall thickness and ERK1 phosphorylation were more marked in the septum than in the rest of the left ventricle. Irbesartan or ramipril treatment prevented LVH and the increase in ERK phosphorylation and reduced collagen content and AT1 up-regulation but up-regulated AT2 receptors.

avapro buy 2015-03-17

It is unclear whether single and combined pharmacologic inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have similar effects on endothelial function and blood pressure (BP). The authors evaluated 63 hypertensive patients divided into 4 groups (hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg/d; irbesartan [IRBE] 150 mg/d; quinapril [QUIN] 20 mg/d; or IRBE 150 mg/d + QUIN 20 mg/d) and 25 healthy normotensive subjects (normal) followed for 12 weeks. Endothelium-dependent dysfunction measured as flow-mediated dilation at Weeks 0 and 12 were: normal, 11.5%+/-2.4% vs 13.5%+/-2.0%; hydrochlorothiazide, 7.3%+/-2.0% vs 12.8%+/-3.1%; QUIN, 7.2%+/-2.8% vs 13.2%+/-2.1%; IRBE, 7.1%+/-2.8% vs 13.0%+/-2.9%; and IRBE + QUIN, 7.5%+/-1.9% vs 12.8%+/-3.0%. Nitroglycerin-mediated responses were: normal, 26.0%+/-1.9% vs 24.0%+/-2.5%; hydrochlorothiazide, 17.0%+/-2.2% vs 18.3%+/-2.6%; QUIN, 17.8%+/-3.2% vs 23.4%+/-3.0%; IRBE, 16.8%+/-3.6% vs 24.7%+/-2.0%; and IRBE + QUIN, 17.3%+/-3.0% vs 25.1 Botox Cheap Nj %+/-2.5%. Antihypertensive therapy restored BP to normal and improved the endothelium-dependent and -independent dysfunction after renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade. In a further finding, the combined effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade was not superior to the action of either of these treatments separately.

avapro buy 2016-08-03

A sample of 34 obese hypertensive women was analyzed in a prospective way with a randomized trial. Patients were randomized to irbesartan (300 mg/day) or olmesartan (40 mg/day) for 3 months. Weight, body mass index, blood pressure, basal glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol Geodon Medication Dosage , triglycerides, HOMA and visfatin were determined at basal time and after 3 months of treatment.

avapro buy 2015-01-02

Selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma modulation is a new pharmacological approach that, based on selective receptor-cofactor interactions and target gene regulation, should result in potent insulin sensitization in the absence of PPARgamma- Nexium 30 Mg Capsule mediated adverse effects. Here, we characterize two angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), telmisartan and irbesartan, as new selective PPAR modulators (SPPARMs). Analysis of PPARgamma protein conformation using protease protection showed that telmisartan directly interacts with the receptor, producing a distinct conformational change compared with a glitazone. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down and fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays revealed selective cofactor binding by the ARBs compared with glitazones with an attenuated release of the nuclear receptor corepressor and absence of transcriptional intermediary factor 2 recruitment by ARBs. Consistently, selective cofactor binding resulted in differential gene expression profiles in adipocytes (ARB versus glitazone treated) assessed by oligo microarray analysis. Finally, telmisartan improved insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice in the absence of weight gain. The present study identifies two ARBs as new SPPARMs. SPPARM activity by ARBs could retain the metabolic efficacy of PPARgamma activation with reduction in adverse effects exerting in parallel AT1 receptor blockade. This may provide a new therapeutic option for better cardiovascular risk management in metabolic diseases and may initiate the development of new classes of drugs combining potent antihypertensive and antidiabetic actions.

avapro buy 2017-10-23

After adjustment for potential covariates (blood pressure and left ventricular mass index at baseline, blood pressure change, age, sex, dose and added antihypertensive treatment), there was a marked difference between the Arg/Arg and Lys/Arg genotypes in patients treated with irbesartan; those with the Arg/Arg genotype responded on average with an almost two-fold greater regression of left ventricular mass index than patients with the Lys/Arg genotype (-30.1 Vantin 200 Mg Price g/m2 [3.6] vs -16.7 [4.5], p = 0.03).

avapro buy 2015-01-10

Statin and AT1 blocker therapy independently and Lasix Generic in combination improve an anti-atherosclerotic endothelial expression quotient and endothelial function.

avapro buy 2016-08-19

The present study investigated the Zanaflex Dosage 6 Mg consequences of partial AT(1) receptor blockade on the participation of catecholamines, thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the renal vasoconstriction induced by angiotensin II (Ang II).

avapro buy 2017-02-22

Female apoE(-/-) mice were treated with irbesartan-mixed (50 mg/kg/day) or irbesartan-free (control) diet for 12 weeks (n = 11/group). One week after the treatment, the mice were co-injected with (14)C-FDG and (99m)Tc-annexin A5, and cryostat sections of the aortic root were prepared. Histochemical examination with Movat's pentachrome (plaque size), Oil Red O (lipid Buy Propecia Online Singapore deposition), Mac-2 (macrophage infiltration), and TUNEL (apoptosis) stainings were performed. Dual-tracer autoradiography was carried out to evaluate the levels of (14)C-FDG and (99m)Tc-annexin A5 in plaques (%ID×kg). In vitro experiments were performed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects.

avapro buy 2016-05-30

Blood pressure and heart rate were measured in 101 hypertensive patients with echocardiographically verified LV hypertrophy, randomized in a double-blind study to treatment with either the beta1-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol or the angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist irbesartan. Changes in blood pressure and heart rate were Tegretol Xr Tabs evaluated after 12 weeks. Beta1-adrenergic receptor genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism.

avapro buy 2017-05-29

Sustained renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation in asthmatic patients plays a crucial role in airway hyperresponsiveness and airflow limitation. Angiotensin II (Ang II), as a key peptide of RAS, contributes to the contraction of human airway Kemadrin Alcohol smooth muscle by activating the RhoA/Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) signaling pathway. Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], is a component of the angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis which counteracts the detrimental effects of the ACE- Ang II-angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis in vivo; however, whether Ang-(1-7) can inhibit the effect of Ang II in the contraction of human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) is unknown. In our study, collagen gel lattices and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the contraction of HASMCs induced by Ang II. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis were performed to confirm the regulatory mechanism and the participating signaling pathway. Ang II caused the contraction of HASMCs; this effect was reversed by Ang‑(1‑7). In addition, irbesartan and A779, which are inhibitors of AT1R and Mas, respectively, attenuated the effect of Ang II and Ang-(1-7). Furthermore, Y-27632, an inhibitor of ROCK2, attenuated the Ang II-induced contraction of HASMCs by blocking the RhoA/ROCK2 signaling pathway which is involved in this contraction, and thus may be a major regulator involved in the basal maintenance of contractility in HASMCs. These data demonstrate that Ang II induces the contraction of HASMCs and that this effect can be reversed by Ang-(1-7), partially through the downregulation of of the RhoA/ROCK2 signaling pathway.

avapro buy 2017-10-12

We review the concept of time-dependent confounding by using the example in paper "Comparative effectiveness of individual angiotensin receptor blockers on risk of mortality in patients with chronic heart failure" by Desai et al. and illustrate how to adjust for it by using inverse probability of treatment weighting through a simulated example. We discuss a few subtle issues that arise in specification of the model for treatment required to fit marginal structural models (MSMs) and in specification of the structural model for the outcome. We discuss the differences between the effects estimated in MSMs and intention-to-treat effects estimated in randomized trials, followed by an outline of Strattera Positive Reviews some limitations of MSMs.

avapro buy 2015-08-06

The observation that the pharmacological inhibitors of the NTCP transporter could block HBV entry suggests that NTCP represents an attractive molecular target for therapeutic intervention in HBV infection.

avapro buy 2017-11-22

We examined the effect of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB), irbesartan (Irb), on urinary markers in hypertensive patients.

avapro buy 2015-08-14

Urine volume, ratio of heart to body weight, plasma glucose, HbA1C, NO levels in the urine, blood and myocardium in diabetic and irbesartan rats were significantly greater than those of normal controls (P<0.05). The ratio of heart to body weight and NO levels of urine, serum and heart tissue in rats of irbesartan group were significantly decreased as compared with those of diabetes rats (P<0.05). Myocardium iNOS mRNA and protein expression decreased significantly in irbesartan group, but not in diabetes group.

avapro buy 2015-05-07

A total of 44 pediatric outpatients with chronic kidney disease (27 male and 17, aged 3.7 to 18 years, median 10 years) were given irbesartan once a day during 18 weeks for arterial hypertension (N = 23), proteinuria (N = 8), or both (N = 13).

avapro buy 2017-10-15

HUVECs expressed the 4 kinds of UATs, URATv1, ABCG2, MRP4 and MCT9. Exposure to urate at 7 mg/dl for 24 h significantly reduced production of NO. Pretreatment with benzbromarone, losartan or irbesartan normalized NO production. The same exposure resulted in dephosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in HUVECs. Again pretreatment with benzbromarone, losartan or irbesartan abolished this effect.

avapro buy 2015-06-24

Sixty Wistar rats undergone 5/6 nephrectomy, then were randomly divided into 4 groups: the model group, sulodexide group (sulodexide 5 mg/kg per day, im), irbesartan group irbesartan (20 mg/kg per day, ig) and sulodexide plus irbesartan group. Another 12 rats were enrolled into the sham operation group. After the treatments for 4, 8 and 12 weeks, urinary protein and serum creatinine levels were measured. After 12 weeks, serum cholesterin and triglycerides levels were measured, and the degrees of glomerular sclerosis and renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis were scored. The expression of aminopeptidase P (JG-12) in the renal tissue was examined using immunohistochemical staining. The renal expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) were detected with RT-PCR and Western blot.

avapro buy 2016-02-12

Our results show that HKC improved lipid metabolic disorders by activating PPARα/γ and attenuating ER stress. HKC could dose-dependently ameliorate renal inflammation and glomerular injury in DN rats. These results suggest that HKC has potential as an anti-DN agent for the treatment of DN in humans.

avapro buy 2016-10-25

This was a prospective, randomized, parallel, active-controlled, open-label study ( NCT01238705) in 160 women (18-60 years) with mild or moderate hypertension, randomized to a once-daily treatment with felodipine combined with irbesartan or metoprolol for 48 weeks. Patients' sexual function was evaluated using a female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire at baseline and after 24 and 48 weeks of therapy. Levels of serum estradiol, testosterone, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured.

avapro buy 2017-08-19

Irbesartan is effective for BP control and may have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism in HD patients.

avapro buy 2015-07-28

Following ARB initiation, 388 (36.3%) patients showed an >30% reduction in albuminuria. Among these patients, the albuminuria level further decreased in 174 (44.8%), remained stable in 123 (31.7%), and increased in 91 (23.5%) patients. Similar albuminuria fluctuations were observed in patients with <30% albuminuria reduction. Renal risk prediction improved when using the albuminuria exposure during the first 12 months versus the initial Month 3 change [ROC difference: 0.78 (95% CI 0.75-0.82) versus 0.68 (0.64-0.72); P < 0.0001].

avapro buy 2017-07-17

We previously described on human vascular preparations that, in addition to its antagonistic properties on Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor, losartan could also inhibit the contraction elicited by the stable thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619. The present study was designed (1) to investigate, in human vascular preparations (the saphenous veins) whether these antagonistic properties on thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TP) receptor were shared by some other AT1 receptor antagonists (irbesartan and valsartan) and the active metabolite of losartan EXP3174, and (2) to compare their antagonistic properties on TP receptors to their antagonistic properties on AT1 receptors. In the presence of indomethacin (10 microM) and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (100 microM), irbesartan, valsartan, and EXP3174 induced a rightward shift of U46619- and angiotensin II-induced contraction. The inhibitory effect of irbesartan, valsartan, and EXP3174 on U46619-induced contraction was significant from 100 microM while their inhibitory effect on the contraction elicited by angiotensin II was significant from 1 nM. With regard to the plasma therapeutic concentrations of irbesartan, valsartan, and EXP3174, these data suggest that TP receptor blockade does not account for the antihypertensive effects of these AT1 receptor blockers.

avapro buy 2015-09-02

Angiotensin II is known to facilitate the release of catecholamines from peripheral sympathetic neurons by stimulating presynaptically located receptors. Although inhibitor studies have revealed these to be angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors, they do in fact appear to display peculiar susceptibilities to various AT1 receptor antagonists, which might correspond to different neuronal and vascular receptor subtypes.

avapro buy 2017-03-23

The plasma profiles for irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide followed the two-compartment model after a single dose. The PK parameters of irbesartan were not affected by hydrochlorothiazide; however irbesartan decreased the hydrochlorothiazide AUC by 25% and increased its clearance by 25%. There were no significant changes in heart rate after each drug alone or in combination. Irbesartan plus hydrochlorothiazide had a greater blood pressure lowering effect compared with irbesartan alone, despite the unchanged irbesartan PK. The relationship between irbesartan plasma concentration and its effects plotted in chronological order showed anticlockwise hysteresis. The PD parameter estimates for the effect of irbesartan on systolic blood pressure, when administered with hydrochlorothiazide were significantly different from those when irbesartan was administered alone. This was manifested by a 25% increase in Emax , and a 40% decrease in EC50 , suggesting a synergistic blood pressure lowering effect for the combination. While parameter estimates for the effect of irbesartan on diastolic blood pressure were changed by hydrochlorothiazide, the differences were only significant for EC50 .

avapro buy 2016-03-19

Irbesartan has a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activation property in addition to its ability to block the AT1 receptor. Accordingly, irbesartan may exert further anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in atherosclerotic plaques. However, such effects of irbesartan have not been fully investigated. Molecular imaging using (18)F-FDG and (99m)Tc-annexin A5 is useful for evaluating inflammation and apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques.