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Chronic (21 consecutive days) and not acute administration of typical (clomipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline) or atypical (iprindole, nomifensin) antidepressant drugs was found to provoke a selective increase in [Met5]enkephalin-like immunoreactivity ([Met5]ELI) in striatum and nucleus accumbens of rat brain. In parallel experiments, following chronic treatment with clomipramine, iprindole and nomifensin striatal [Leu5]enkephalin-like immunoreactivity ([Leu5]ELI) was also significantly enhanced. No variations in enzymatic activity of either enkephalinase or aminopeptidase were detected when assayed in several brain parts of animals chronically treated with antidepressants. Elevation of ELI in discrete regions of the brain might play a part in the mechanism of action of these centrally acting agents.
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1. The study evaluated the efficacy of amisulpride, fluoxetine and clomipramine at the beginning of the re-feeding phase of the treatment of restricting anorexia nervosa according to DSM-IV criteria. 2. 13 patients, mean weight 37.61 kg +/- 9.80 SD, were treated with clomipramine at a mean dosage of 57.69 mg +/- 25.79 SD; 10 patients, mean weight 40.90 kg +/- 6.98 SD, were treated with fluoxetine at a mean dosage of 28.00 mg +/- 10.32 SD; 12 patients, mean weight 38.41 kg +/- 8.33 SD, were treated with amisulpride at a mean dosage of 50.00 mg +/- 0.00 SD. 3. Clinical evaluation was carried out under single-blind condition at basal time and after three months by a structured clinical interview, the Eating Disorder Interview based on Long Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE II BEI). 4. Patients treated with amisulpride showed a more significant increase (p=0.016) of mean weight. Concerning weight phobia, body image disturbance and amenorrhoea, no significant difference resulted.
LM 5008 (4-[2-(3-indolyl)ethyl]piperidine) (10, 20 and 50 mg kg-1) had no significant effect on pressor responses to noradrenaline or tyramine in rats anaesthetized with urethane. Desmethylimipramine (1 mg kg-1) blocked the response to tyramine but chlorimipramine (5 mg kg-1) had no significant effect on responses to noradrenaline or tyramine. In the rabbit, anaesthetized with chloralose, LM 5008 (5 mg kg-1) had no effect on pressor responses to noradrenaline, tyramine or angiotensin II, while desmethylimipramine (0.25 mg kg-1) inhibited responses to tyramine and potentiated those to noradrenaline. LM 5008 (10 mg kg-1) had no effect on resting blood pressure of conscious normotensive or DOCA-saline hypertensive rats. Tranylcypromine (5 mg kg-1) produced a fall in blood pressure in conscious normotensive and in DOCA hypertensive rats. Treatment with a combination of LM 5008 (10 mg kg-1) and tranylcypromine (5 mg kg-1) resulted in the appearance of a behavioural hyperactivity syndrome, but blood pressure was not different from that of animals treated with tranylcypromine alone. These results further demonstrate the selectivity of LM 5008 for 5-hydroxytryptamine as opposed to catecholamine uptake.
6-Fluoro-serotonin (6F-5-HT) was previously identified in the rat brain after peripheral administration of 6-fluoro-DL-tryptophan, a serotonin (5-HT) synthesis inhibitor. These present studies, performed with rat brain synaptosomes show that: i-neuronal 6F-5-HT uptake partly involved the 5-HT transporter since it was inhibited by clomipramine, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor, ii-6F-5-HT blocked the synaptosomal uptake of 3H-5-HT, with an IC50 value of 98 +/- 13 nM, and iii- 6F-5-HT induced 3H-5-HT release from preloaded synaptosomes, with an EC50 value of 95 +/- 6 nM; this release was decreased in the presence of clomipramine, suggesting the involvement of the 5-HT transporter. This release was also reduced when using synaptosomes from reserpinized rats, suggesting that the vesicular pool also participates to the 3H-5-HT release induced by 6F-5-HT. So, 6F-5-HT behaved as a substrate for the 5-HT neuronal transporter.
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There is now some evidence that major depression is accompanied by activation of the inflammatory response system. There is also some evidence that antidepressants may suppress the release of cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and IL-6 by activated monocytes and IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) by activated T cells. This study was carried out to examine the effects of clomipramine, sertraline, and trazodone on the stimulated production of IFN gamma, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and IL-10, a negative immunoregulatory cytokine. Whole blood of nine healthy volunteers was stimulated with PHA, 5 micrograms/mL and LPS, 25 micrograms/mL for 72 hr with and without incubation with clomipramine, 10(-6) and 10(-9) M, sertraline, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M, and trazodone, 10(-6) and 10(-8) M. All three antidepressants significantly reduced IFN gamma secretion, whereas clomipramine and sertraline significantly increased IL-10 secretion in culture supernatant. All three antidepressants significantly reduced the IFN gamma/IL-10 ratio. The results suggest that antidepressants, at concentrations in the therapeutical range, have negative immunoregulatory effects through inhibition of IFN gamma and stimulation of IL-10 release.
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Results suggest that the locus of control orientation is important in evaluating the differential effects of treatments in panic disorder. A differential effect on panic locus of control in favor of cognitive therapy in comparison to medication was found.
Behavioral therapy and drugs have significantly improved obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. A variety of behavioral therapy methods have been employed, but exposure and prevention of response, particularly, have reduced ritualistic actions of many OCD patients. Many psychoactive drugs have been tried; the tricyclic antidepressant drugs (clomipramine or Anafranel), especially in research outside the United States, have alleviated OCD symptoms as well as depression. Compulsive rituals have responded more often than obsessive actions to both behavioral and psychopharmacological therapy. Recent research has suggested that psychophysiological as well as traditional psychogenic factors may contribute to the etiology, course, and alleviation of OCD.
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Previous investigators have demonstrated amelioration of lipid-soluble drug toxidromes with infusion of lipid emulsions. Clomipramine is a lipid-soluble tricyclic antidepressant with significant cardiovascular depressant activity in human overdose. We compare resuscitation with Intralipid versus sodium bicarbonate in a rabbit model of clomipramine toxicity.
After 7 days of treatment with a variety of antidepressant drugs (desipramine, imipramine, clomipramine, nortriptyline, nialamide), both an increase in alpha 2-receptor density and a decrease in beta-receptor density were observed in the cerebral cortex but not limbic forebrain. However, mianserin caused a marked increase in alpha 2-receptors without any change in beta-receptors. Nisoxetine did not produce any change in these two adrenergic receptors. It is suggested that intrasynaptic norepinephrine is important but that, in addition, other factors may be involved in the increase in alpha 2-receptors induced by antidepressant drugs.
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Despite decades of research on psychiatric disorders, the aetiology and precise biological mechanisms that underlie depressive diseases are still poorly understood. There is increasing evidence that psychiatric disorders not only have a neurochemical basis but are also associated with morphological alterations in central nervous neurons and/or glial cells. Antidepressants may act by restoring structure as well as function of neural networks, meaning that they may, as a fundamental principle, affect neural plasticity underlying normal brain functioning. To examine these novel concepts of the pathophysiology of depression and antidepressant medication we have carried out a series of experiments using the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in male tree shrews, an animal model with a high validity for the pathophysiology of depressive disorders, in which the animals were treated with the tricyclic antidepressant compound clomipramine. We found that one month of stress reduced cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus, and decreased the total hippocampal volume. Gene transcription analysis revealed that, under these experimental conditions, expression of genes known to be involved in processes of cell differentiation is suppressed. These effects of social conflict on hippocampal cells, including gene transcription, and on the entire hippocampal volume could be counteracted by chronic treatment with the antidepressant clomipramine. Stress also induced a constant hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and suppressed both motor and marking behaviour. These neuroendocrine and behavioural stress-induced changes were also re-normalized by clomipramine.
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A method is described for assaying by GLC the mono- and di-N-demethyl derivatives of chlorimipramine. This was performed by N-acylating the compounds with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and pyridine.
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Cholinesterases are divided into two classes based on differences in their substrate specificity and tissue distribution: acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). These enzymes may be inhibited by several compounds, such as antidepressants. The antidepressants paroxetine, imipramine, clomipramine and sertraline inhibited both venom AChE as well as human serum BChE in a concentration-dependent manner but had no effect on AChE in the rat brain striatum. The IC(50) of venom calculated for imipramine was 0.3 mM, paroxetine 0.38 mM, clomipramine 0.34 mM and sertraline 0.35 mM. Analysis of kinetic data indicated that the inhibition caused by sertraline and paroxetine was mixed, i.e. K(m) values increased and V(max) decreased in a concentration dependent manner. Imipramine and clomipramine exhibited competitive inhibition, i.e. K(m) values increased and V(max) remained constant. The present results suggest that these therapeutic agents used for depression can also be considered as inhibitors of snake venom and human serum cholinesterase.
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We searched the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Trial Register (December 2007), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2007), MEDLINE (January 1966 to December 2007), and PsycINFO (1967 to December 2007). Ongoing and unpublished trials were located through searching the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, the CRISP and WHO ICTRP search portals (databases searched in December 2007), and through contacting key researchers and pharmaceutical companies. Additional studies were located through study reference lists.
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PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants for treatment of both adult (nonelderly) MDD (patients aged < 65 years) and late-life MDD (patients aged ≥ 55 years). The search was limited to articles published between January 1, 1980, and March 3, 2010 (inclusive). The year 1980 was used as a cutoff in our search to decrease diagnostic variability, since the DSM-III was introduced in 1980. Our search cross-referenced the term placebo with each of the following antidepressants: amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, clomipramine, trimipramine, protriptyline, dothiepin, doxepin, lofepramine, amoxapine, maprotiline, amineptine, nomifensine, bupropion, phenelzine, tranylcypromine, isocarboxazid, moclobemide, brofaromine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, zimelidine, tianeptine, trazodone, nefazodone, agomelatine, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, reboxetine, mirtazapine, and mianserin. We also reviewed the reference lists of all studies identified through the PubMed/MEDLINE search.
Drug repositioning, i.e. use of existing medicals to treat a different illness, is especially rewarding for neglected tropical diseases (NTD), since in this field the pharmaceutical industry is rather reluctant to spend vast investments for drug development. NTDs afflict primarily poor populations in under-developed countries, which minimizes financial profit. Here we investigated the trypanocidal effect of clomipramine, a commercial antipsychotic drug, on Trypanosoma brucei. The data showed that this drug killed the parasite with an IC50 of about 5μM. Analysis of the involved cell death mechanism revealed furthermore an initial autophagic stress response and finally the induction of apoptosis. The latter was substantiated by a set of respective markers such as phosphatidylserine exposition, DNA degradation, loss of the inner mitochondrial membrane potential and characteristic morphological changes. Clomipramine was described as a trypanothione inhibitor, but as judged from our results it also showed DNA binding capacities and induced substantial morphological changes. We thus consider it likely that the drug induces a multifold adverse interaction with the parasite's physiology and induces stress in a way that trypanosomes cannot cope with.
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A number of qualitative and meta-analytic reviews point to the efficacy of psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this article, we report a multidimensional meta-analysis of psychological and pharmacological treatment studies for OCD published between 1980 and 2001, examining a range of variables not previously meta-analyzed, including exclusion rates and exclusion criteria, percent of patients improved or recovered post-treatment, mean post-treatment symptomatology, and long-term outcome. These additional metrics provide a more nuanced view of the strengths and limitations of the existing data and their implications for clinical practice. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral therapy, and a range of pharmacological interventions, lead to substantial improvement for the average patient, with individual psychotherapies and clomipramine and other Serotonin reuptake inhibitors faring best across multiple metrics. However, OCD symptoms persist at moderate levels even following adequate treatment course, and no replicable data are available on maintenance of gains for either form of treatment at 1 year or beyond. Future research should track recruitment and exclusion of study participants, include more comorbid patients, and focus on longer-term follow-up using multiple indices of outcome. More research on combined pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions is also indicated.
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a heterogeneous cluster of syndromes that share aspects of both anxiety and affective disorders. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is epidemiologically and phenomenologically distinct from the compulsive character. Although both genetic and neuropsychological data suggest some biologic basis to obsessive-compulsive disorder, there is still insufficient information in both of these areas. Treatment with clomipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, has proved useful for obsessional patients either as an adjunct to behavior therapy or as a primary treatment for patients who are not amenable to behavioral interventions.
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In thirty patients with common migraine the platelet concentrations of met-enkephalin immunoreactivity (ME) (76 +/- 9 pg/mg protein) were similar to those in 23 healthy volunteers (77 +/- 5), suggesting that there is no alteration in the ME pool in this biochemical compartment in migraine. Chronic treatment (4 weeks) with drugs that interfere with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) synthesis or uptake induced the expected changes in platelet 5-HT levels, i.e. a rise following administration of the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (daily dose: 300-500 mg, n = 9) and a decrease after amine uptake inhibition by amitryptyline (30-75 mg, n = 7) and even more by chlorimipramine (30-50 mg, n = 9). Platelet ME concentrations rose by up to approximately 90% over the basal values after either 5-hydroxytryptophan (significantly from week 2) or amitriptyline (at week 2) and were unchanged after chlorimipramine, indicating that 5-HT and ME concentrations in platelets can vary independently. The high platelet ME levels following 5-hydroxytryptophan and amitriptyline cannot be explained at present. They might be due either to increased ME synthesis, possibly in the megakaryocyte, or to decreased utilization by platelets or both.
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Clomipramine, exposure and ritual prevention, and their combination are all efficacious treatments for OCD. Intensive exposure and ritual prevention may be superior to clomipramine and, by implication, to monotherapy with the other SRIs.
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Rapid increase in fluoxetine dose to high doses was associated with depressive symptoms in 6 patients. In 8 patients, improvement in depression was associated with addition of a tricyclic antidepressant to fluoxetine treatment. In 5 patients, both OCD and depressive symptoms improved when the patient was switched to the partially selective serotonin reuptake blocker clomipramine.
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Two multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of 10 weeks of treatment with up to 300 mg daily of clomipramine in nondepressed patients with OCD. There were 575 patients enrolled in these clinical trials, and preliminary analyses of data from 384 of these patients demonstrate a virtual absence of placebo response, a very low rate of premature discontinuation, and for patients receiving clomipramine, a statistically and clinically significant improvement in OCD symptoms (40%-45% mean improvement with clomipramine vs. 4%-5% mean improvement with placebo). In general, clomipramine was well tolerated in doses of up to 300 mg daily.
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The relationship between plasma levels of clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine and clinical response was studied in a group of patients with obsessive-compulsive neurosis. In general the response was best in the middle range of plasma concentrations, showing the inverted U curve well recognized with nortriptyline. However, the results of this study suggest that the response of compulsive rituals correlates with levels of plasma clomipramine, while depression appears to correlate with plasma levels of desmethylclomipramine. The former relationship may be the stronger. There may also be some relationship between side effects and relative plasma levels of clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine.
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30 of the 32 dogs that completed the study had a degree of improvement, as measured by caregivers' global assessment. Two caregivers considered the storm phobia to be resolved. Panting, pacing, trembling, remaining near the caregiver, hiding, excessive salivation, destructiveness, excessive vocalization, self-trauma, and inappropriate elimination all decreased significantly during treatment. Improvement was greater during true storms (rain, thunder, and lightning) than during rain only. Response to audio simulation did not change during treatment. Four months after the study, improvement was maintained.
While many data suggest that Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an illness accompanied by dysregulation of the serotonergic system, interesting clinical evidence and animal studies also suggest possible dysregulation of the dopaminergic (DA) system. In order to determine whether clomipramine (CMI), an antiobsessional agent, is capable of altering DA function, we performed a neuroleptic radioreceptor assay (NRRA) on plasma samples from OCD patients before and after treatment in a double-blind, placebo controlled trial of CMI. CMI produced mild but significant DA D-2 receptor binding activity in an in vitro assay. The degree of dopamine binding activity did not correlate with clinical response to clomipramine. Because it has been suggested that another drug with antiobsessional efficacy, fluoxetine, may also have dopamine blocking properties, it may be speculated that antidopaminergic activity in combination with serotonergic effects is involved in antiobsessional activity of effective agents for some patients.