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Combining aliskiren with ramipril provided a greater reduction in msDBP than either drug alone in patients with diabetes and hypertension.
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Eleven patients with rheumatoid arthritis were included in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study to receive ramipril in an uptitration design (2.5 to 10 mg) for 8 weeks followed by placebo, or vice versa, on top of standard antiinflammatory therapy. Endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and disease activity were investigated at baseline and after each treatment period. Endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation increased from 2.85+/-1.49% to 4.00+/-1.81% (P=0.017) after 8 weeks of therapy with ramipril but did not change with placebo (from 2.85+/-1.49% to 2.84+/-2.47%; P=0.88). Although systolic blood pressure and heart rate remained unaltered, diastolic blood pressure decreased slightly from 78+/-7 to 74+/-6 mm Hg (P=0.03). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha showed a significant inverse correlation with flow-mediated dilation (r=-0.408, P=0.02), and CD40 significantly decreased after ramipril therapy (P=0.049).
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The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the effects of the activated RAS is target-organ damage, in part due to their effects on causing hypertension. Blocking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with inhibitors has been shown to attenuate the pathological effects of the RAS. Clinical trials have shown that ACE inhibition improves outcomes in the prevention of acute myocardial infarction, lowering the morbidity and mortality in congestive heart failure, and attenuates renal dysfunction. There is recent evidence to show that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have similar efficacy to ACE inhibitors in reducing cardiovascular outcomes. The wealth of information obtained regarding the beneficial effects of RAS inhibition on clinical outcome has been focused on monotherapy with either ARB or ACE inhibition. Evidence from some trials suggests that better overall inhibition of RAS by dual therapy may improve clinical outcomes. Combination therapy has been shown to be beneficial in patients with congestive heart failure or renal disease. The Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT) trial showed equal benefit of either ARB or ACE inhibition with reduction in primary end points in postmyocardial infarction patients, but there was no further benefit from dual therapy in reducing outcomes. In the recent ONTARGET study, there was further evidence that ARBs are equal to ACE inhibitors in reducing cardiovascular events. In Ongoing Telmisartan, Ramipril, or Both in Patients at High Risk for Vascular Events (ONTARGET), combined RAS blockade did not have any added benefit but resulted in increased risk of adverse outcomes. In the Candesartan in Heart Failure (CHARM) and the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT) trials of patients with severe heart failure, the addition of an ARB to an ACE inhibitor reduced cardiac mortality and lowered hospital admissions. Whether or not dual therapy is beneficial in patients with diabetic renal failure should be clarified by future studies. Overall, patients receiving dual therapy, if clinically justified, should be monitored closely for potential adverse effects.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) causes considerable morbidity and mortality. Hypertension is a risk factor for PAD. Treatment for hypertension must be compatible with the symptoms of PAD. Controversy regarding the effects of beta-adrenoreceptor blockade for hypertension in patients with PAD has led many physicians to stop prescribing beta-adrenoreceptor blockers. Little is known about the effects of other classes of anti-hypertensive drugs in the presence of PAD. This is the second update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003.
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beta Blocker treatment is associated with improved outcomes in patients with clinical evidence of mild to moderate heart failure after myocardial infarction. Most importantly, high risk patients with persistent heart failure appear to benefit at least as much as lower risk patients with transient heart failure.
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The period of early morning blood pressure surge is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events than at other times of the day. Antihypertensive medication given once daily in the morning may not protect against this surge if its duration of action is too short. We compared telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker with a trough-to-peak ratio >90%, with ramipril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor with a trough-to-peak ratio of around 50%.
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The efficacy and safety of ACEI in adult patients with hypertension and proteinuria after renal transplantation is proven however data on the effectiveness of ACEI in transplanted children are rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ramipril on proteinuria and BP in children after R-Tx. Twelve transplanted children (median age 15.3 yr, median time after R-Tx 4.5 yr) with proteinuria with or without hypertension were prospectively treated with ramipril for six months. Proteinuria was assessed as protein/creatinine ratio. Office BP was evaluated and hypertension defined as BP > or =95th centile. Graft function was assessed (Schwartz formula). The starting dose of ramipril was 1.5 mg/m(2)/24-h. Proteinuria declined in 92% of children from a median 39 to 22 mg/mmol creatinine (p < 0.01). The median decline of proteinuria was 9 mg/mmol creatinine, it reached 23% of the initial values. The prevalence of hypertension did not change significantly (50% initially vs. 33% after six months). Graft function and serum potassium level did not change significantly, two children developed mild hyperkalemia. Ramipril can reduce proteinuria in most transplanted children; its antiproteinuric effect is exhibited even without BP lowering effect.
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We studied the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/kininase II inhibition selectively in the ischemic zone on reperfusion arrhythmias, and the role of bradykinin versus angiotensin II (produced locally in this zone) in modulating the severity of such arrhythmias. Isolated rat hearts (n = 12 per group) were subjected to independent perfusion of left and right coronary beds. The left coronary bed received the ACE/kininase II inhibitor ramiprilat, alone or in combination with either HOE140 (bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist) or angiotensin II, before induction of regional ischemia (10 min) by discontinuation of flow to the bed. Ramiprilat (1, 10, or 100 nM) did not significantly alter the incidence of reperfusion-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) or fibrillation (VF), but reduced the incidence of sustained VF from 83% in controls to 75, 50, and 25% (p < 0.05). The protective effects of 100 nM ramiprilat were abolished by coinfusion of HOE140 (10 or 100 nM) but not affected by coinfusion of angiotensin II (1 nM). HOE140 (10 nM), when infused alone into the left coronary bed before 7-min ischemia, increased the incidence of sustained VF from 42 to 100% (p < 0.05). Although HOE140 caused vasoconstriction in the left coronary bed when given alone or in combination with ramiprilat, its proarrhythmic effects were not due to a reduction of flow to the bed. We conclude that selective inhibition of ACE/kininase II in the ischemic zone moderately attenuates reperfusion arrhythmias and that enhanced bradykinin availability rather than reduced angiotensin II in synthesis contributes to such an effect.
Other than decreasing angiotensin II production, acute ramiprilat-induced vasodilation in canine coronary conductance arteries is mediated in part by nitric oxide. Ramiprilat-induced vasodilation in resistance arteries is in part mediated by the action of bradykinin.
The role of kinins in the cardioprotective effects of ACE inhibitors remains controversial.
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Subjects with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower limbs are at high risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in such patients is elevated. Recent studies have shown that regular use of cardiovascular medications, such as therapeutic and preventive agents for PAD patients, seems to be promising in reducing long-term mortality and morbidity. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) system plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, and ACE-inhibitors (ACE-I) seem to have vasculoprotective and antiproliferative effects as well as a direct anti-atherogenic effect. ACE-I also promote the degradation of bradykinin and the release of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator; further, they have shown important implications for vascular oxidative stress. Other studies have suggested that ACE-I may also improve endothelial dysfunction. ACE-I are useful for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in clinical and subclinical PAD. Particularly, one agent of the class (ie, ramipril) has shown in many studies to able to significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with PAD.
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In the Ramipril Efficacy In Nephropathy (REIN) trial, ramipril significantly lowered the rate of reaching the combined end-point of doubling of baseline serum creatinine levels or end-stage renal failure (ESRF).
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Thirty-eight children who were on therapy ≥1 year were included. Thirty-two children had renoparenchymal, and 6 had primary HT. The median age at the beginning of therapy was 13.6 years (range = 4.1-18.0 years), and the median time of antihypertensive therapy was 2.6 years (range = 1.0-11.8 years). Thirty-four percent of children received combination therapy; the median number of antihypertensive drugs was 1.5 drugs/patient (range = 1-4). Sixty-eight percent of children had BP <95th percentile, but only 34% of the children had controlled HT. Children with uncontrolled HT had a tendency to have a higher daytime diastolic BP index before the start of therapy than children with controlled HT (0.99±0.11 vs. 0.94±0.11; P = 0.09). There was a significant decrease in prevalence of nondipping (from 47% to 16%; P = 0.006) with therapy.
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Because part of the cardioprotective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors results from their protective effects on cardiac bradykinin (BK) metabolism, the purpose of this study was to define the metabolism of BK in normal and failing human hearts and to compare the effect of omapatrilat, a vasopeptidase inhibitor (VPI), which simultaneously inhibits both neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and ACE, with that of an ACE inhibitor. Exogenous BK at a nanomolar concentration was incubated alone, in the presence of an ACE inhibitor (ramiprilat, 36 nM), or in the presence of a VPI (omapatrilat, 61 nM) with left ventricular membranes prepared from normal donor hearts (n = 7), and hearts from patients with an ischemic (n = 11) or dilated (n = 12) cardiomyopathy (DCM). The half-lives calculated for BK alone (199 +/- 60, 224 +/- 108, and 283 +/- 122 s; P = NS) exhibited similar values for normal, ischemic, and DCM heart tissues, respectively. Ramiprilat significantly increased the half-life of BK (P <.01), but the effect was similar for the three kinds of tissues (297 +/- 104, 267 +/- 157, and 407 +/- 146 s, respectively; P = NS). The potentiating effect of the VPI omapatrilat on the kinetic parameter of BK (478 +/- 210, 544 +/- 249, and 811 +/- 349 s, respectively) was greater than that of the ACE inhibitor (P <.01). Moreover, omapatrilat had a more important potentiating effect with DCM than normal heart membranes (P <.05). These results show that not only ACE but also and mainly NEP play an important role in the degradation of BK in human heart membranes. Omapatrilat, a VPI, has a greater protective effect on BK metabolism than that of a pure ACE inhibitor. Thus, inhibition of both ACE and NEP with omapatrilat could be more cardioprotective than ACE inhibition alone.
Both ramipril and atenolol reduced arterial pressure, and the diastolic pressure fall was similar in the aorta and brachial artery, but the systolic pressure fall for ramipril was greater than for atenolol (by 5.2 mmHg, P < 0.0001) in the aorta compared with the brachial artery. The aortic systolic pressure difference with ramipril in comparison with atenolol was accompanied by an absolute difference of 10.7% (P < 0.0001) in the augmentation index, denoting a reduction in peripheral wave reflection by ramipril. The aortic pulse wave velocity fell to a similar degree with ramipril in comparison with atenolol, but fell to a greater degree (1.35 and 0.44 m/s, respectively, P < 0.0001 for both) in muscular arteries of the lower and upper limbs.
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Most individuals with arterial hypertension or congestive heart failure are insulin-resistant and at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), using an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or a selective angiotensin receptor AT1 blocker (ARB), may exert favourable metabolic effects capable of preventing T2DM in high risk individuals. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of RAS inhibition on the incidence of new cases of T2DM in patients with arterial hypertension or congestive heart failure. Ten RCTs with cardiovascular prognosis as primary endpoints analysed the incidence of T2DM as secondary endpoints or as post-hoc analysis after a mean follow-up of 1 to 6 years: five with an ACEI and five with an ARB, compared with a placebo (n=4) or a reference drug (beta-blocker or diuretic: n=5; amlodipine: n=2). Eight RCTs concerned hypertensive patients: STOP Hypertension-2 (lisinopril or enalapril vs beta-blocker or diuretic), CAPPP (captopril vs thiazide or beta-blocker), HOPE (ramipril vs placebo), ALLHAT (lisinopril vs chlorthalidone and lisinopril vs amlodipine), LIFE (losartan vs atenolol), SCOPE (candesartan vs placebo), ALPINE (candesartan vs placebo) and VALUE (valsartan vs amlodipine). Two RCTs concerned patients with congestive heart failure: SOLVD (enalapril vs placebo) and CHARM-overall programme (candesartan vs placebo). Overall, 2 675 new cases of T2DM (7.40%) were observed in the group of 36 167 patients receiving a treatment with ACEI or ARA as compared with 3 842 events (9.63%) in the group of 39 902 control patients. A mean weighed relative risk reduction of new T2DM of 22% (95% CI: 18, 26; p<0.00001) was observed after RAS inhibition. The beneficial effect was similar with ACEIs and with ARBs as well as in patients with hypertension and in those with heart failure, and was also present whatever the comparator (placebo or beta-blockers/diuretics or amlodipine). The number needed-to-treat to avoid one new case of T2DM averaged 45 patients over 4-5 years. In conclusion, RAS inhibition consistently and significantly reduces the incidence of T2DM in individuals with arterial hypertension or with congestive heart failure. Considering the pandemic of T2DM, such pharmacological approach deserves further attention among the strategies aiming at preventing T2DM.
Hypertrophied and failing myocardium has been shown to undergo creatine kinase (CK) isoform switching, resulting in increased MB and BB components. We tested the hypothesis that chronic volume overload hypertrophy due to mitral regurgitation in the dog causes CK isoenzyme switching and that this could be reversed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. Thirteen adult mongrel dogs had mitral regurgitation induced by mitral valvular chordal rupture: six were treated with ramipril for 4 months and seven were untreated for 4 months. Twelve dogs were sham-operated: six received ramipril for 3 months and six were untreated. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased from 58+/-4 to 104+/-10 ml in untreated (P<0.001) and from 55+/-3 to 91+/-6 ml in treated dogs (P<0.01) as LV mass/volume ratio decreased in both untreated (1. 60+/-0.07 to 1.13+/-0.08 g/ml, P<0.001) and treated dogs (1.44+/-0.06 to 1.20+/-0.08 g/ml, P<0.01). CK-MB isoform was 7.4+/-1.1% in normal shams and increased to 13.5+/-1.9% and 18.1+/-3.0% in both treated and untreated mitral regurgitation dogs; respectively (P<0. 05). Steady state CK-B mRNA increased three-fold in treated and untreated dogs with mitral regurgitation (P<0.003) compared to normals, while CK-M mRNA expression did not differ in all groups. Thus, chronic volume overload hypertrophy of mitral regurgitation induces CK isoform switching by selective induction of the CK-B gene, and ramipril therapy does not affect this isoform switch. This may reflect a response to increased diastolic stress and more efficient energy utilization in the volume overloaded myocardium.
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The 1-year compliance (88.3% vs 88.3%, P = .996) and 3-year persistence (81.9% vs 82.4%, P = .197) rates were similar between ACE inhibitors and ARBs. Users of ACE inhibitors more often switched therapy (24.2% vs 13.1%, P <.001), primarily to an ARB. Variations in compliance, persistence, and switching behavior were detected between specific ACE inhibitors, but not between specific ARBs.
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Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is associated with ischemic and proteinuric tubular injury; however, whether dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can also induce Kim-1 is unknown. We studied Kim-1 expression in homozygous Ren2 rats, characterized by renal damage through excessive RAS activation. We also investigated whether antifibrotic treatment (RAS blockade or p38 MAP kinase inhibition) would affect Kim-1 expression. At 7 wk of age, homozygous Ren2 rats received a nonhypotensive dose of candesartan (0.05 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) sc) or the p38 inhibitor SB-239063 (15 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) sc) for 4 wk; untreated Ren2 and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats served as controls. Kim-1 mRNA and protein expression were determined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and related to markers of prefibrotic renal damage. Urinary Kim-1 was measured in 8-wk-old Ren2 and SD rats with and without angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ramipril, 1 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) in drinking water for 4 wk). Untreated Ren2 rats showed a >20-fold increase in renal Kim-1 mRNA (expressed as Kim-1-to-GAPDH ratio): 75.5 +/- 43.6 vs. 3.1 +/- 1.0 in SD rats (P < 0.01). Candesartan and SB-239063 strongly reduced Kim-1 mRNA: 3.1 +/- 1.5 (P < 0.01) and 9.8 +/- 4.2 (P < 0.05), respectively. Kim-1 protein expression in damaged tubules paralleled mRNA expression. Kim-1 expression correlated with renal osteopontin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and collagen III expression and with tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Damaged tubular segments expressing activated p38 also expressed Kim-1. Urinary Kim-1 was increased in Ren2 vs. SD (458 +/- 70 vs. 27 +/- 2 pg/ml, P < 0.01) rats and abolished in Ren2 rats treated with ramipril (33 +/- 5 pg/ml, P < 0.01). Kim-1 is associated with development of RAS-mediated renal damage. Antifibrotic treatment through RAS blockade or p38 MAP kinase inhibition reduced Kim-1 in the homozygous Ren2 model.
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common chronic cardiac arrhythmia and a major public health problem, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. The most prevalent cause of AF in the western world is hypertensive heart disease. Blood pressure increase leads to hemodynamic modifications which usually have direct effects on left ventricular and atrial structure and function. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in regulating blood volume and systemic vascular resistance. Furthermore, recent studies showed that RAAS plays a key role in left atrial and ventricle structural and functional remodeling. Experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that angiotensin-II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor blockers are effective in preventing atrial fibrillation in patients with arterial hypertension or several forms of heart disease. In our study, we showed that ramipril is effective in preventing AF relapses in patients with lone AF (LAF: i.e AF in the absence of clinical and echocardiographic evidence of cardiovascular, pulmonary, or endocrine disease), independently of any sizeable effect on cardiac echocardiographic anatomy when compared with baseline data. In this paper, we briefly discuss: 1) the role of ACE inhibitor ramipril in preventing AF relapses in LAF patients; 2) the underlying mechanisms by which it can potentially act; 3) the possibility of considering the occurrence of LAF as a marker of subclinical organ damage in subjects with blood pressure values in the 130 to 139 mm Hg range, that is in the pre-hypertension classification according to the JNC-7 Report, of high normal blood pressure levels according to the 2007 ESC/ESH guidelines.
The benefit of the local ramipril administration was diminished by the inherent vessel trauma. Systemic ramipril administration resulted in a significant reduction of neointimal proliferation in New Zealand white rabbits.
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An imbalance between endothelial apoptosis and regeneration is one of the initiating events in atherosclerosis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition corrects the endothelial dysfunction observed in coronary artery disease, and this could be the consequence of a reduction in the rate of endothelial apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different ACE inhibitors on endothelial apoptosis.
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Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors like captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, trandopril and ramipril may rarely induce a life threatening angioedema. We present two cases of severe angioedema induced by enalapril and ramipril along with possible precipitating factors observed in these patients. The importance of prompt recognition and early management of such cases is emphasized.
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The Polycap was found to be effective and safe in the previously published TIPS trial. The present study in healthy volunteers establishes that Polycap is safe (no serious adverse events) and well tolerated, and that there is no indication of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions for any of the ingredients, with their bioavailabilities being well preserved.
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in this exploratory analysis, geriatricians rated limited life expectancy and cognitive impairment very important in driving deprescribing practices. Geriatricians more often deprescribed multiple medications in the setting of advancing dependency and cognitive impairment, driven by dementia severity and pill burden concerns. Physician characteristics also influence deprescribing practices. Further exploration of factors influencing deprescribing patterns, and patient outcomes, is needed.
Ac-SDKP administration reduces renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy. Addition of Ac-SDKP to ACE inhibition therapy improves the reduction of renal fibrosis with respect to ACE inhibition alone, suggesting a beneficial effect of this pharmacological association in diabetic nephropathy.
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Retrospective cohort study that used linked hospital discharge and prescription databases containing information on 18 453 patients 65 years of age or older who were admitted for an acute myocardial infarction between 1 April 1996 and 31 March 2000.
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In a first protocol, we addressed the role of bradykinin and analyzed the effect of the ACE inhibitor ramiprilat without and with added bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 on regional myocardial blood flow (colored microspheres) and function (sonomicrometry). Thirty-two enflurane/N2O-anesthetized open-chest dogs were subjected to 15 minutes of occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) and 4 hours of subsequent reperfusion. Eight dogs served as placebo controls (group 1), and 8 dogs received ramiprilat (20 micrograms/kg IV) before LCx occlusion (group 2). Eight dogs received a continuous intracoronary infusion of HOE 140 [0.5 ng/(mL.min) IC] during ischemia and reperfusion (group 3), and in 8 dogs HOE 140 was infused continuously during ischemia and reperfusion, starting 45 minutes before the administration of ramiprilat (group 4). Mean aortic pressure was kept constant with an intra-aortic balloon, and heart rate did not change throughout the experimental protocols. Under control conditions and during myocardial ischemia, posterior transmural blood flow (BF) and systolic wall thickening (WT) were not different in the four groups of dogs. However, at 4 hours of reperfusion, WT was still depressed in groups 1 (-10 +/- 20% of control [mean +/- SD]), 3 (-18 +/- 12% of control), and 4 (-12 +/- 21% of control), whereas WT in group 2 had recovered to 55 +/- 20% of control (P < .05 versus group 1). BF at 4 hours of reperfusion was not different in the four groups of dogs. Thus, the beneficial effect of ramiprilat on the functional recovery of stunned myocardium was obviously mediated by bradykinin. Since bradykinin stimulates the formation of both prostaglandins and nitric oxide, we tested in a second protocol which of these mediators was further involved in the beneficial effects of ramiprilat. Twenty-four additional dogs were subjected to 15 minutes of LCx occlusion and 4 hours of reperfusion. Six dogs received the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10 mg/kg IV) (group 5) and 6 dogs a combination of indomethacin with ramiprilat (group 6) before LCx occlusion. Six dogs received the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (20 mg/kg IV) (group 7) and 6 dogs a combination of L-NAME with ramiprilat (group 8) before LCx occlusion. BF and WT before and during myocardial ischemia were not different in groups 5 and 6 and groups 7 and 8. However, at 4 hours of reperfusion, WT was still depressed in groups 5 (-10 +/- 38% of control), 6 (-7 +/- 18% of control), and 7 (-12 +/- 14% of control), whereas WT in group 8 had recovered to 47 +/- 28% of control (P < .05 versus group 7). BF at 4 hours of reperfusion was not different in the four groups of dogs.
1. Seven drugs (captopril, zofenopril, enalapril, ramipril, lisinopril, fosinopril, and SQ 29,852) were compared in vitro in homogenates of aorta, brain, heart, lung, and kidney and in sera of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) both with respect to potencies of their active moieties as inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and, where applicable, rates of hydrolysis of their prodrug ester functions. 2. In ex vivo dose-response and time-course studies, the inhibitory effects of the seven drugs on tissue ACEs and their relative distributions to SHR tissues were compared following oral administration. 3. The relative potencies of the inhibitory moieties of the drugs (in parentheses) and the normalized 'equiactive' oral doses employed for time-course studies were: SQ 29,852 (1.0), 100 mg kg-1; captopril (3.5), 30 mg kg-1; enalapril (12), 20 mg kg-1; fosinopril (13), 25 mg kg-1; zofenopril (20), 10 mg kg-1; lisinopril (24), 10 mg kg-1; and ramipril (51), 5 mg kg-1. 4. Following oral administration of the drugs to SHR, the degree and duration of ACE inhibition in aorta and lung correlated with the antihypertensive actions, with ramipril, lisinopril, and zofenopril producing effects of the greatest magnitude and duration. 5. Ramipril and enalapril did not inhibit brain ACE ex vivo; captopril and zofenopril had modest but short-lasting effects; and fosinopril, lisinopril, and SQ 29,852 had long-lasting inhibitory actions, which, with the latter two, were delayed in onset. 6. All of the drugs produced significant inhibition of kidney ACE, with ramipril and fosinopril having somewhat weaker effects, perhaps due to biliary routes of excretion. 7. Captopril, fosinopril, and particularly zofenopril inhibited cardiac ACE ex vivo with degrees and durations that were marked compared with those of the other drugs; preliminary studies with isolated hearts suggest a possible relationship between inhibition of cardiac ACE and preservation of cardiac function subsequent to ischaemia.