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Altace (Ramipril)
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Altace

Altace is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of high blood pressure or decreasing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and death in certain patients. Altace acts by relaxing blood vessels. It is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Lasix, Norvasc, Toprol, Hyzaar

 

Also known as:  Ramipril.

Description

Altace is a perfect remedy in struggle against high blood pressure or decreasing the risk of heart attack, stroke, and death in certain patients.

Altace acts by relaxing blood vessels. It is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor.

Altace is also known as Ramipril, Cardace, Tritace, Ramace, Lopace.

Generic name of Altace is Ramipril Tablets.

Brand name of Altace is Altace.

Dosage

Take Altace orally with or without food.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Altace suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Altace and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Altace overdosage: fainting, severe dizziness or lightheadedness, weakness.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Altace are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Altace if you are allergic to Altace components.

Be careful with Altace if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Altace may lower the ability of your body to fight infection.

Tell your doctor or dentist that you take Altace before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

If you have high blood pressure, do not use nonprescription products that contain stimulants. These products may include diet pills or cold medicines.

Diabetes patients should be very careful with Altace because it may affect your blood sugar. Check blood sugar levels closely.

Elderly patients should be very careful with Altace. They may be more sensitive to its effects.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Altace suddenly.

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Combining aliskiren with ramipril provided a greater reduction in msDBP than either drug alone in patients with diabetes and hypertension.

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Eleven patients with rheumatoid arthritis were included in this randomized, double-blind, crossover study to receive ramipril in an uptitration design (2.5 to 10 mg) for 8 weeks followed by placebo, or vice versa, on top of standard antiinflammatory therapy. Endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and disease activity were investigated at baseline and after each treatment period. Endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation increased from 2.85+/-1.49% to 4.00+/-1.81% (P=0.017) after 8 weeks of therapy with ramipril but did not change with placebo (from 2.85+/-1.49% to 2.84+/-2.47%; P=0.88). Although systolic blood pressure and heart rate remained unaltered, diastolic blood pressure decreased slightly from 78+/-7 to 74+/-6 mm Hg (P=0.03). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha showed a significant inverse correlation with flow-mediated dilation (r=-0.408, P=0.02), and CD40 significantly decreased after ramipril therapy (P=0.049).

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The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the effects of the activated RAS is target-organ damage, in part due to their effects on causing hypertension. Blocking angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with inhibitors has been shown to attenuate the pathological effects of the RAS. Clinical trials have shown that ACE inhibition improves outcomes in the prevention of acute myocardial infarction, lowering the morbidity and mortality in congestive heart failure, and attenuates renal dysfunction. There is recent evidence to show that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have similar efficacy to ACE inhibitors in reducing cardiovascular outcomes. The wealth of information obtained regarding the beneficial effects of RAS inhibition on clinical outcome has been focused on monotherapy with either ARB or ACE inhibition. Evidence from some trials suggests that better overall inhibition of RAS by dual therapy may improve clinical outcomes. Combination therapy has been shown to be beneficial in patients with congestive heart failure or renal disease. The Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT) trial showed equal benefit of either ARB or ACE inhibition with reduction in primary end points in postmyocardial infarction patients, but there was no further benefit from dual therapy in reducing outcomes. In the recent ONTARGET study, there was further evidence that ARBs are equal to ACE inhibitors in reducing cardiovascular events. In Ongoing Telmisartan, Ramipril, or Both in Patients at High Risk for Vascular Events (ONTARGET), combined RAS blockade did not have any added benefit but resulted in increased risk of adverse outcomes. In the Candesartan in Heart Failure (CHARM) and the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial (Val-HeFT) trials of patients with severe heart failure, the addition of an ARB to an ACE inhibitor reduced cardiac mortality and lowered hospital admissions. Whether or not dual therapy is beneficial in patients with diabetic renal failure should be clarified by future studies. Overall, patients receiving dual therapy, if clinically justified, should be monitored closely for potential adverse effects.

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Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) causes considerable morbidity and mortality. Hypertension is a risk factor for PAD. Treatment for hypertension must be compatible with the symptoms of PAD. Controversy regarding the effects of beta-adrenoreceptor blockade for hypertension in patients with PAD has led many physicians to stop prescribing beta-adrenoreceptor blockers. Little is known about the effects of other classes of anti-hypertensive drugs in the presence of PAD. This is the second update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003.

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beta Blocker treatment is associated with improved outcomes in patients with clinical evidence of mild to moderate heart failure after myocardial infarction. Most importantly, high risk patients with persistent heart failure appear to benefit at least as much as lower risk patients with transient heart failure.

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The period of early morning blood pressure surge is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events than at other times of the day. Antihypertensive medication given once daily in the morning may not protect against this surge if its duration of action is too short. We compared telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker with a trough-to-peak ratio >90%, with ramipril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor with a trough-to-peak ratio of around 50%.

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The efficacy and safety of ACEI in adult patients with hypertension and proteinuria after renal transplantation is proven however data on the effectiveness of ACEI in transplanted children are rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ramipril on proteinuria and BP in children after R-Tx. Twelve transplanted children (median age 15.3 yr, median time after R-Tx 4.5 yr) with proteinuria with or without hypertension were prospectively treated with ramipril for six months. Proteinuria was assessed as protein/creatinine ratio. Office BP was evaluated and hypertension defined as BP > or =95th centile. Graft function was assessed (Schwartz formula). The starting dose of ramipril was 1.5 mg/m(2)/24-h. Proteinuria declined in 92% of children from a median 39 to 22 mg/mmol creatinine (p < 0.01). The median decline of proteinuria was 9 mg/mmol creatinine, it reached 23% of the initial values. The prevalence of hypertension did not change significantly (50% initially vs. 33% after six months). Graft function and serum potassium level did not change significantly, two children developed mild hyperkalemia. Ramipril can reduce proteinuria in most transplanted children; its antiproteinuric effect is exhibited even without BP lowering effect.

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We studied the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/kininase II inhibition selectively in the ischemic zone on reperfusion arrhythmias, and the role of bradykinin versus angiotensin II (produced locally in this zone) in modulating the severity of such arrhythmias. Isolated rat hearts (n = 12 per group) were subjected to independent perfusion of left and right coronary beds. The left coronary bed received the ACE/kininase II inhibitor ramiprilat, alone or in combination with either HOE140 (bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist) or angiotensin II, before induction of regional ischemia (10 min) by discontinuation of flow to the bed. Ramiprilat (1, 10, or 100 nM) did not significantly alter the incidence of reperfusion-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) or fibrillation (VF), but reduced the incidence of sustained VF from 83% in controls to 75, 50, and 25% (p < 0.05). The protective effects of 100 nM ramiprilat were abolished by coinfusion of HOE140 (10 or 100 nM) but not affected by coinfusion of angiotensin II (1 nM). HOE140 (10 nM), when infused alone into the left coronary bed before 7-min ischemia, increased the incidence of sustained VF from 42 to 100% (p < 0.05). Although HOE140 caused vasoconstriction in the left coronary bed when given alone or in combination with ramiprilat, its proarrhythmic effects were not due to a reduction of flow to the bed. We conclude that selective inhibition of ACE/kininase II in the ischemic zone moderately attenuates reperfusion arrhythmias and that enhanced bradykinin availability rather than reduced angiotensin II in synthesis contributes to such an effect.

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Other than decreasing angiotensin II production, acute ramiprilat-induced vasodilation in canine coronary conductance arteries is mediated in part by nitric oxide. Ramiprilat-induced vasodilation in resistance arteries is in part mediated by the action of bradykinin.

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The role of kinins in the cardioprotective effects of ACE inhibitors remains controversial.

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Subjects with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) of the lower limbs are at high risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in such patients is elevated. Recent studies have shown that regular use of cardiovascular medications, such as therapeutic and preventive agents for PAD patients, seems to be promising in reducing long-term mortality and morbidity. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) system plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, and ACE-inhibitors (ACE-I) seem to have vasculoprotective and antiproliferative effects as well as a direct anti-atherogenic effect. ACE-I also promote the degradation of bradykinin and the release of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator; further, they have shown important implications for vascular oxidative stress. Other studies have suggested that ACE-I may also improve endothelial dysfunction. ACE-I are useful for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events in clinical and subclinical PAD. Particularly, one agent of the class (ie, ramipril) has shown in many studies to able to significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with PAD.

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In the Ramipril Efficacy In Nephropathy (REIN) trial, ramipril significantly lowered the rate of reaching the combined end-point of doubling of baseline serum creatinine levels or end-stage renal failure (ESRF).

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Thirty-eight children who were on therapy ≥1 year were included. Thirty-two children had renoparenchymal, and 6 had primary HT. The median age at the beginning of therapy was 13.6 years (range = 4.1-18.0 years), and the median time of antihypertensive therapy was 2.6 years (range = 1.0-11.8 years). Thirty-four percent of children received combination therapy; the median number of antihypertensive drugs was 1.5 drugs/patient (range = 1-4). Sixty-eight percent of children had BP <95th percentile, but only 34% of the children had controlled HT. Children with uncontrolled HT had a tendency to have a higher daytime diastolic BP index before the start of therapy than children with controlled HT (0.99±0.11 vs. 0.94±0.11; P = 0.09). There was a significant decrease in prevalence of nondipping (from 47% to 16%; P = 0.006) with therapy.

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Because part of the cardioprotective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors results from their protective effects on cardiac bradykinin (BK) metabolism, the purpose of this study was to define the metabolism of BK in normal and failing human hearts and to compare the effect of omapatrilat, a vasopeptidase inhibitor (VPI), which simultaneously inhibits both neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and ACE, with that of an ACE inhibitor. Exogenous BK at a nanomolar concentration was incubated alone, in the presence of an ACE inhibitor (ramiprilat, 36 nM), or in the presence of a VPI (omapatrilat, 61 nM) with left ventricular membranes prepared from normal donor hearts (n = 7), and hearts from patients with an ischemic (n = 11) or dilated (n = 12) cardiomyopathy (DCM). The half-lives calculated for BK alone (199 +/- 60, 224 +/- 108, and 283 +/- 122 s; P = NS) exhibited similar values for normal, ischemic, and DCM heart tissues, respectively. Ramiprilat significantly increased the half-life of BK (P <.01), but the effect was similar for the three kinds of tissues (297 +/- 104, 267 +/- 157, and 407 +/- 146 s, respectively; P = NS). The potentiating effect of the VPI omapatrilat on the kinetic parameter of BK (478 +/- 210, 544 +/- 249, and 811 +/- 349 s, respectively) was greater than that of the ACE inhibitor (P <.01). Moreover, omapatrilat had a more important potentiating effect with DCM than normal heart membranes (P <.05). These results show that not only ACE but also and mainly NEP play an important role in the degradation of BK in human heart membranes. Omapatrilat, a VPI, has a greater protective effect on BK metabolism than that of a pure ACE inhibitor. Thus, inhibition of both ACE and NEP with omapatrilat could be more cardioprotective than ACE inhibition alone.

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Both ramipril and atenolol reduced arterial pressure, and the diastolic pressure fall was similar in the aorta and brachial artery, but the systolic pressure fall for ramipril was greater than for atenolol (by 5.2 mmHg, P < 0.0001) in the aorta compared with the brachial artery. The aortic systolic pressure difference with ramipril in comparison with atenolol was accompanied by an absolute difference of 10.7% (P < 0.0001) in the augmentation index, denoting a reduction in peripheral wave reflection by ramipril. The aortic pulse wave velocity fell to a similar degree with ramipril in comparison with atenolol, but fell to a greater degree (1.35 and 0.44 m/s, respectively, P < 0.0001 for both) in muscular arteries of the lower and upper limbs.

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Most individuals with arterial hypertension or congestive heart failure are insulin-resistant and at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), using an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or a selective angiotensin receptor AT1 blocker (ARB), may exert favourable metabolic effects capable of preventing T2DM in high risk individuals. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of RAS inhibition on the incidence of new cases of T2DM in patients with arterial hypertension or congestive heart failure. Ten RCTs with cardiovascular prognosis as primary endpoints analysed the incidence of T2DM as secondary endpoints or as post-hoc analysis after a mean follow-up of 1 to 6 years: five with an ACEI and five with an ARB, compared with a placebo (n=4) or a reference drug (beta-blocker or diuretic: n=5; amlodipine: n=2). Eight RCTs concerned hypertensive patients: STOP Hypertension-2 (lisinopril or enalapril vs beta-blocker or diuretic), CAPPP (captopril vs thiazide or beta-blocker), HOPE (ramipril vs placebo), ALLHAT (lisinopril vs chlorthalidone and lisinopril vs amlodipine), LIFE (losartan vs atenolol), SCOPE (candesartan vs placebo), ALPINE (candesartan vs placebo) and VALUE (valsartan vs amlodipine). Two RCTs concerned patients with congestive heart failure: SOLVD (enalapril vs placebo) and CHARM-overall programme (candesartan vs placebo). Overall, 2 675 new cases of T2DM (7.40%) were observed in the group of 36 167 patients receiving a treatment with ACEI or ARA as compared with 3 842 events (9.63%) in the group of 39 902 control patients. A mean weighed relative risk reduction of new T2DM of 22% (95% CI: 18, 26; p<0.00001) was observed after RAS inhibition. The beneficial effect was similar with ACEIs and with ARBs as well as in patients with hypertension and in those with heart failure, and was also present whatever the comparator (placebo or beta-blockers/diuretics or amlodipine). The number needed-to-treat to avoid one new case of T2DM averaged 45 patients over 4-5 years. In conclusion, RAS inhibition consistently and significantly reduces the incidence of T2DM in individuals with arterial hypertension or with congestive heart failure. Considering the pandemic of T2DM, such pharmacological approach deserves further attention among the strategies aiming at preventing T2DM.

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Hypertrophied and failing myocardium has been shown to undergo creatine kinase (CK) isoform switching, resulting in increased MB and BB components. We tested the hypothesis that chronic volume overload hypertrophy due to mitral regurgitation in the dog causes CK isoenzyme switching and that this could be reversed by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. Thirteen adult mongrel dogs had mitral regurgitation induced by mitral valvular chordal rupture: six were treated with ramipril for 4 months and seven were untreated for 4 months. Twelve dogs were sham-operated: six received ramipril for 3 months and six were untreated. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased from 58+/-4 to 104+/-10 ml in untreated (P<0.001) and from 55+/-3 to 91+/-6 ml in treated dogs (P<0.01) as LV mass/volume ratio decreased in both untreated (1. 60+/-0.07 to 1.13+/-0.08 g/ml, P<0.001) and treated dogs (1.44+/-0.06 to 1.20+/-0.08 g/ml, P<0.01). CK-MB isoform was 7.4+/-1.1% in normal shams and increased to 13.5+/-1.9% and 18.1+/-3.0% in both treated and untreated mitral regurgitation dogs; respectively (P<0. 05). Steady state CK-B mRNA increased three-fold in treated and untreated dogs with mitral regurgitation (P<0.003) compared to normals, while CK-M mRNA expression did not differ in all groups. Thus, chronic volume overload hypertrophy of mitral regurgitation induces CK isoform switching by selective induction of the CK-B gene, and ramipril therapy does not affect this isoform switch. This may reflect a response to increased diastolic stress and more efficient energy utilization in the volume overloaded myocardium.

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The 1-year compliance (88.3% vs 88.3%, P = .996) and 3-year persistence (81.9% vs 82.4%, P = .197) rates were similar between ACE inhibitors and ARBs. Users of ACE inhibitors more often switched therapy (24.2% vs 13.1%, P <.001), primarily to an ARB. Variations in compliance, persistence, and switching behavior were detected between specific ACE inhibitors, but not between specific ARBs.

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Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) is associated with ischemic and proteinuric tubular injury; however, whether dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can also induce Kim-1 is unknown. We studied Kim-1 expression in homozygous Ren2 rats, characterized by renal damage through excessive RAS activation. We also investigated whether antifibrotic treatment (RAS blockade or p38 MAP kinase inhibition) would affect Kim-1 expression. At 7 wk of age, homozygous Ren2 rats received a nonhypotensive dose of candesartan (0.05 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) sc) or the p38 inhibitor SB-239063 (15 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) sc) for 4 wk; untreated Ren2 and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats served as controls. Kim-1 mRNA and protein expression were determined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and related to markers of prefibrotic renal damage. Urinary Kim-1 was measured in 8-wk-old Ren2 and SD rats with and without angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ramipril, 1 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) in drinking water for 4 wk). Untreated Ren2 rats showed a >20-fold increase in renal Kim-1 mRNA (expressed as Kim-1-to-GAPDH ratio): 75.5 +/- 43.6 vs. 3.1 +/- 1.0 in SD rats (P < 0.01). Candesartan and SB-239063 strongly reduced Kim-1 mRNA: 3.1 +/- 1.5 (P < 0.01) and 9.8 +/- 4.2 (P < 0.05), respectively. Kim-1 protein expression in damaged tubules paralleled mRNA expression. Kim-1 expression correlated with renal osteopontin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and collagen III expression and with tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Damaged tubular segments expressing activated p38 also expressed Kim-1. Urinary Kim-1 was increased in Ren2 vs. SD (458 +/- 70 vs. 27 +/- 2 pg/ml, P < 0.01) rats and abolished in Ren2 rats treated with ramipril (33 +/- 5 pg/ml, P < 0.01). Kim-1 is associated with development of RAS-mediated renal damage. Antifibrotic treatment through RAS blockade or p38 MAP kinase inhibition reduced Kim-1 in the homozygous Ren2 model.

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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common chronic cardiac arrhythmia and a major public health problem, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. The most prevalent cause of AF in the western world is hypertensive heart disease. Blood pressure increase leads to hemodynamic modifications which usually have direct effects on left ventricular and atrial structure and function. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in regulating blood volume and systemic vascular resistance. Furthermore, recent studies showed that RAAS plays a key role in left atrial and ventricle structural and functional remodeling. Experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that angiotensin-II converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-II receptor blockers are effective in preventing atrial fibrillation in patients with arterial hypertension or several forms of heart disease. In our study, we showed that ramipril is effective in preventing AF relapses in patients with lone AF (LAF: i.e AF in the absence of clinical and echocardiographic evidence of cardiovascular, pulmonary, or endocrine disease), independently of any sizeable effect on cardiac echocardiographic anatomy when compared with baseline data. In this paper, we briefly discuss: 1) the role of ACE inhibitor ramipril in preventing AF relapses in LAF patients; 2) the underlying mechanisms by which it can potentially act; 3) the possibility of considering the occurrence of LAF as a marker of subclinical organ damage in subjects with blood pressure values in the 130 to 139 mm Hg range, that is in the pre-hypertension classification according to the JNC-7 Report, of high normal blood pressure levels according to the 2007 ESC/ESH guidelines.

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The benefit of the local ramipril administration was diminished by the inherent vessel trauma. Systemic ramipril administration resulted in a significant reduction of neointimal proliferation in New Zealand white rabbits.

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An imbalance between endothelial apoptosis and regeneration is one of the initiating events in atherosclerosis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition corrects the endothelial dysfunction observed in coronary artery disease, and this could be the consequence of a reduction in the rate of endothelial apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different ACE inhibitors on endothelial apoptosis.

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Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors like captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, trandopril and ramipril may rarely induce a life threatening angioedema. We present two cases of severe angioedema induced by enalapril and ramipril along with possible precipitating factors observed in these patients. The importance of prompt recognition and early management of such cases is emphasized.

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The Polycap was found to be effective and safe in the previously published TIPS trial. The present study in healthy volunteers establishes that Polycap is safe (no serious adverse events) and well tolerated, and that there is no indication of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions for any of the ingredients, with their bioavailabilities being well preserved.

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in this exploratory analysis, geriatricians rated limited life expectancy and cognitive impairment very important in driving deprescribing practices. Geriatricians more often deprescribed multiple medications in the setting of advancing dependency and cognitive impairment, driven by dementia severity and pill burden concerns. Physician characteristics also influence deprescribing practices. Further exploration of factors influencing deprescribing patterns, and patient outcomes, is needed.

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Ac-SDKP administration reduces renal fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy. Addition of Ac-SDKP to ACE inhibition therapy improves the reduction of renal fibrosis with respect to ACE inhibition alone, suggesting a beneficial effect of this pharmacological association in diabetic nephropathy.

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Retrospective cohort study that used linked hospital discharge and prescription databases containing information on 18 453 patients 65 years of age or older who were admitted for an acute myocardial infarction between 1 April 1996 and 31 March 2000.

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In a first protocol, we addressed the role of bradykinin and analyzed the effect of the ACE inhibitor ramiprilat without and with added bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140 on regional myocardial blood flow (colored microspheres) and function (sonomicrometry). Thirty-two enflurane/N2O-anesthetized open-chest dogs were subjected to 15 minutes of occlusion of the left circumflex coronary artery (LCx) and 4 hours of subsequent reperfusion. Eight dogs served as placebo controls (group 1), and 8 dogs received ramiprilat (20 micrograms/kg IV) before LCx occlusion (group 2). Eight dogs received a continuous intracoronary infusion of HOE 140 [0.5 ng/(mL.min) IC] during ischemia and reperfusion (group 3), and in 8 dogs HOE 140 was infused continuously during ischemia and reperfusion, starting 45 minutes before the administration of ramiprilat (group 4). Mean aortic pressure was kept constant with an intra-aortic balloon, and heart rate did not change throughout the experimental protocols. Under control conditions and during myocardial ischemia, posterior transmural blood flow (BF) and systolic wall thickening (WT) were not different in the four groups of dogs. However, at 4 hours of reperfusion, WT was still depressed in groups 1 (-10 +/- 20% of control [mean +/- SD]), 3 (-18 +/- 12% of control), and 4 (-12 +/- 21% of control), whereas WT in group 2 had recovered to 55 +/- 20% of control (P < .05 versus group 1). BF at 4 hours of reperfusion was not different in the four groups of dogs. Thus, the beneficial effect of ramiprilat on the functional recovery of stunned myocardium was obviously mediated by bradykinin. Since bradykinin stimulates the formation of both prostaglandins and nitric oxide, we tested in a second protocol which of these mediators was further involved in the beneficial effects of ramiprilat. Twenty-four additional dogs were subjected to 15 minutes of LCx occlusion and 4 hours of reperfusion. Six dogs received the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10 mg/kg IV) (group 5) and 6 dogs a combination of indomethacin with ramiprilat (group 6) before LCx occlusion. Six dogs received the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (20 mg/kg IV) (group 7) and 6 dogs a combination of L-NAME with ramiprilat (group 8) before LCx occlusion. BF and WT before and during myocardial ischemia were not different in groups 5 and 6 and groups 7 and 8. However, at 4 hours of reperfusion, WT was still depressed in groups 5 (-10 +/- 38% of control), 6 (-7 +/- 18% of control), and 7 (-12 +/- 14% of control), whereas WT in group 8 had recovered to 47 +/- 28% of control (P < .05 versus group 7). BF at 4 hours of reperfusion was not different in the four groups of dogs.

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1. Seven drugs (captopril, zofenopril, enalapril, ramipril, lisinopril, fosinopril, and SQ 29,852) were compared in vitro in homogenates of aorta, brain, heart, lung, and kidney and in sera of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) both with respect to potencies of their active moieties as inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and, where applicable, rates of hydrolysis of their prodrug ester functions. 2. In ex vivo dose-response and time-course studies, the inhibitory effects of the seven drugs on tissue ACEs and their relative distributions to SHR tissues were compared following oral administration. 3. The relative potencies of the inhibitory moieties of the drugs (in parentheses) and the normalized 'equiactive' oral doses employed for time-course studies were: SQ 29,852 (1.0), 100 mg kg-1; captopril (3.5), 30 mg kg-1; enalapril (12), 20 mg kg-1; fosinopril (13), 25 mg kg-1; zofenopril (20), 10 mg kg-1; lisinopril (24), 10 mg kg-1; and ramipril (51), 5 mg kg-1. 4. Following oral administration of the drugs to SHR, the degree and duration of ACE inhibition in aorta and lung correlated with the antihypertensive actions, with ramipril, lisinopril, and zofenopril producing effects of the greatest magnitude and duration. 5. Ramipril and enalapril did not inhibit brain ACE ex vivo; captopril and zofenopril had modest but short-lasting effects; and fosinopril, lisinopril, and SQ 29,852 had long-lasting inhibitory actions, which, with the latter two, were delayed in onset. 6. All of the drugs produced significant inhibition of kidney ACE, with ramipril and fosinopril having somewhat weaker effects, perhaps due to biliary routes of excretion. 7. Captopril, fosinopril, and particularly zofenopril inhibited cardiac ACE ex vivo with degrees and durations that were marked compared with those of the other drugs; preliminary studies with isolated hearts suggest a possible relationship between inhibition of cardiac ACE and preservation of cardiac function subsequent to ischaemia.

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altace buy 2015-04-01

Blood samples of 320 CV patients with coronary artery disease and/or arterial hypertension were analyzed by wholeblood aggregometry. Platelet aggregation was determined by measuring buy altace the increase in impedance across paired electrodes in response to the aggregatory agents collagen and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), respectively. These data were correlated with medical treatment.

altace buy 2017-11-20

Ramipril is a long-acting non-sulphydryl converting enzyme inhibitor that requires cleavage of its ester group to form the active diacid metabolite, ramiprilat. Renal excretion largely determines the drug's duration of action and the dosage should be reduced in patients with renal impairment. Oral ramipril given daily at dosages of 5 mg or more can control blood pressure over a 24-hour period; lower buy altace doses may be effective in patients with heart failure inadequately controlled by diuretics alone. No serious idiosyncratic adverse reactions have been reported. Ramipril is one of the most potent long-acting converting enzyme inhibitors developed; it is effective given once daily in the treatment of all grades of hypertension and of heart failure.

altace buy 2017-12-31

Twenty-four patients could be enrolled. The thromboxane values were very Zetia 10 Mg Reviews heterogeneous, and none of the group differences observed was statistically significant. The values obtained for 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) showed a statistically significant increase with 10 mg/day doses under ramipril therapy.

altace buy 2017-03-26

High-dose CEI therapy can prevent progressive structural changes resulting from localized myocardial damage induced by DC shock. the failure of alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockade and angiotensin II subtype 1 blockade to attenuate remodeling argues against an important direct role for norepinephrine acting through alpha 1-receptors or Avapro Overdose Side Effects angiotensin II acting through the type 1 receptor in the remodeling process in this model.

altace buy 2015-12-30

Albuminuria is an important risk marker for adverse cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes and mortality. The relationship between albuminuria and risk is continuous Zovirax 200mg Dispersible Tablets and linear, like that of blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. Evidence now supports increased risk even at levels traditionally considered within normal limits. In high-risk patients, routine annual screening can detect changes in urine albumin excretion and improve the timely identification of albuminuria, and therefore should be considered in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. Preferred simple screening methods appropriate for use in the primary care setting include microalbumin-specific dipsticks and urinary albumin:creatinine ratio determination (from a spot urine sample). Cornerstones of albuminuria treatment include risk factor management, ongoing monitoring, and, in patients with hypertension, chronic kidney disease, or diabetes, the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)-blocking agents. Both angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have demonstrated utility in this regard; data from studies of direct renin inhibition are promising. The combined use of an ACE inhibitor and ARB was once considered a viable option for the treatment of albuminuria; however, results of the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) raised important questions regarding the benefits and limitations of dual RAAS blockade. Ongoing studies should provide important insight into the effects of this approach on renal outcomes.

altace buy 2015-01-09

Angioedema secondary to the use of ACE-inhibitors is well recognised, with a high rate of airway intervention required. Several treatments have been described, but little evidence exists for any of them. We describe the successful use Mestinon Sr 180 Mg of fresh frozen plasma in two cases.

altace buy 2016-03-31

Despite the accumulating evidence of their efficacy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) still provide imperfect renoprotection. Up-titration above conventional doses and combined therapy with other antiproteinuric agents may serve to Celebrex 200 Mg Price achieve renoprotection in patients at risk of rapid disease progression.

altace buy 2016-02-01

A number of large randomised controlled trials have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, compared with placebo or other blood pressure-lowering drugs, improve coronary heart disease outcomes (fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularisation) in diverse patient groups, e.g. in primary and secondary prevention, those with and without left ventricular dysfunction, and among hypertensive and non-hypertensive subjects. An updated meta-regression analysis which included five major trials in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) (EUROPA, INVEST, ACTION, PEACE and CAMELOT) concluded that ACE inhibitor (ACE-I) therapy has clear benefits in secondary prevention, but there are important and unexplained differences between trials in clinical outcome, baseline cardiovascular risk, blood pressure changes and trial design which deserve further discussion of the underlying mechanisms and clinical interpretation. For example, in placebo-controlled trials the biggest (2022%) reductions in primary end points (including mortality) have been observed with perindopril and ramipril, whereas trials using trandolapril and quinapril had no effect on survival or recurrent CAD Voltaren Osteo Gel events. This review summarises and compares the major findings of these recent trials, and provides further analysis of the underlying mechanisms and clinical significance of secondary CAD prevention with ACE-I therapy.

altace buy 2016-11-10

The in vitro effects of omapatrilat, a dual vasopeptidase inhibitor that simultaneously inhibits neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), on exogenous bradykinin metabolism after a single passage through the coronary bed were compared with that of a NEP inhibitor (retrothiorphan, 25 nM), an ACE inhibitor (enalaprilat, 130 nM), and omapatrilat (25 nM). Bradykinin and inhibitors were infused into isolated Langendorff rat hearts perfused at 1 ml/min followed by reperfusion at 10 ml/min. Residual bradykinin was quantified in the coronary effluent by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to calculate bradykinin recovery and its kinetic parameters (Vmax/Km). Bradykinin degradation Cefixime Dispersible Tablet 100mg rate at 1 ml/min was 4.56 +/- 0.39 1/min per gram without inhibitors and was significantly reduced to 2.57 +/- 0.19 1/min per gram in the presence of enalaprilat, to 2.97 +/- 0.38 1/min per gram with retrothiorphan, to 1.82 +/- 0.17 1/min per gram with both enalaprilat and retrothiorphan, and to 1.14 +/- 0.35 1/min per gram with omapatrilat. In a second set of experiments, the effect of a 14-day treatment of rats with either ACE inhibitors (enalapril, quinapril, and ramipril), a NEP inhibitor (candoxatril), or omapatrilat on exogenous bradykinin metabolism was studied in Langendorff perfused hearts isolated from these long-term treated rats. In untreated rats, bradykinin degradation at a coronary perfusion of 1 ml/min was 4.35 +/- 0.41 1/min per gram. This value was reduced by 30% for the NEP inhibitor, by 50% for all ACE inhibitors, and by 75% for omapatrilat. All inhibitors administered either short term or long term significantly reduced bradykinin degradation during a single passage through the coronary bed. However, omapatrilat administration resulted in the greatest protection from bradykinin breakdown than ACE or NEP inhibitors alone.

altace buy 2015-07-26

The pooled data analysis from the SMILE Programme confirms the favourable effects of zofenopril treatment in patients with post-AMI and its Sildenafil Citrate Generic Vs Viagra long-term benefit in terms of prevention of CV morbidity and mortality.

altace buy 2017-05-04

Protected learning time (PLT) schemes Avodart 5mg Buy have been set up in primary care across the UK. There is little published evidence of their effectiveness.

altace buy 2015-06-24

In chronic nephropathies with proteinuria of 3 g or more per 24 h, ramipril safely reduces proteinuria and the rate of GFR decline to an Bactrim Ds Mixed With Alcohol extent that seems to exceed the reduction expected for the degree of blood-pressure lowering.

altace buy 2017-10-13

This perspective study was performed to demonstrate the prevention of left ventricular hypertrophy by ACE-inhibitor, ramipril, in hypertensives of recent onset. Thirty-four hypertensive patients, treated with ramipril (group I Nexium 40 Mg Maximum Dosage ), and 32 controls who received another frequently employed drug (the calcium channel-antagonist, felodipine (group II), were evaluated. Neither of two groups received any anti-hypertensive drug and did not suffer from left ventricular hypertrophy. All selected patients underwent M-mode echocardiography for measuring the following parameters: diastolic diameter of left ventricle, (DDLV); systolic diameter of left ventricle (SDLV); inter-ventricular septum (IVS); thickness of the posterior wall (PW); and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Two anti-hypertensive drugs reduce systemic hypertension the same way. But, in hypertensives receiving ramipril (group I), the echocardiographic parameters of the left ventricle increased non-significantly. On the other hand, in those treated with felodipine (II group), these parameters significantly changed. The mechanisms of non-increase in cardiac and non-cardiac proteins, due to the ACE-inhibitors, are illustrated.

altace buy 2017-09-25

HOPE led to a striking and unprecedented increase, over 400%, in ramipril prescribing to elderly Ontario residents, including those not eligible for the trial. Many physicians are now prescribing ramipril for patients with diabetes or Celexa Generic Price congestive heart failure.

altace buy 2017-01-12

Systemic pretreatment with a sub-hypotensive, RAS-blocking dose of candesartan Drug Zofran affords neuroprotection after focal ischemia, associated with increased activity of the neurotrophin BDNF/TrkB system. Ramipril at sub-hypotensive and hypotensive, RAS-blocking doses showed no significant neuroprotective effects.

altace buy 2017-05-07

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS Cefixime Capsules Usp Monograph ) has long been recognized to play a significant role in hypertension pathophysiology. Certain agents that modify the RAAS can control blood pressure and improve cardiovascular outcomes. Aliskiren is the first of a new class of antihypertensive agents known as renin inhibitors.

altace buy 2016-10-10

We aimed to characterize different cellular effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin 1 (AT1) receptor blockers (ARBs) as mono- or combination therapy in cardiac pressure overload. Methods Celebrex With Alcohol and

altace buy 2016-01-19

To test the hypothesis that local administration of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor via a microporous balloon catheter would be more effective than oral administration of ACE inhibitor in preventing neointima formation after balloon angioplasty.

altace buy 2016-05-17

A new method development and validation approach is proposed in order to develop a reliable method for the simultaneous quantitation of ramipril and ramiprilat in the presence of numerous labile metabolites. This new approach involves the usage of a synthesized labile acyl glucuronide of ramipril as well as individual and pooled incurred (study) samples in the development and validation process. Following the method validation and prior to its application to a large clinical study, a mini pilot study was performed to evaluate the performance of the method. When the samples from the mini pilot study were analyzed by two different scientists, 100% of the results from incurred sample reanalysis (ISR) matched within 8% of difference and the mean differences were 0.21% and 1.40% for ramipril and ramiprilat, respectively. The validated concentration range reported in this article is 0.2-80 ng/mL for both analytes. Various stabilities, such as bench-top, autosampler, freeze/thaw, and long-term, were also successfully evaluated. The key to the success were low sample processing temperature (4 degrees C), proper choice of sample extraction procedure, and adequate chromatographic conditions to obtain good peak shape without the need of derivatization and baseline separation between the analytes and their glucuronide metabolites.

altace buy 2015-05-06

Spinal cord injury patients may develop proteinuria as a result of glomerulosclerosis due to urosepsis, hydronephrosis, vesicoureteric reflux, and renal calculi. Proteinuria in turn contributes to progression of kidney disease. We report one paraplegic and two tetraplegic patients, who developed recurrent urine infections, urinary calculi, and hydronephrosis. These patients required several urological procedures (nephrostomy, cystoscopy and ureteric stenting, ureteroscopy and lithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy). These patients had not received antimuscarinic drugs nor had they undergone video-urodynamics. Proteinuria was detected only at a late stage, as testing for proteinuria was not performed during follow-up visits. Urine electrophoresis showed no monoclonal bands in any; Serum glomerular basement membrane antibody screen was negative. Serum neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies screen by fluorescence was negative. All patients were prescribed Ramipril 2.5 mg daily and there was no further deterioration of renal function. Spinal cord injury patients, who did not receive antimuscarinic drugs to reduce intravesical pressure, are at high risk for developing reflux nephropathy. When such patients develop glomerulosclerosis due to recurrent urosepsis, renal calculi, or hydronephrosis, risk of proteinuria is increased further.

altace buy 2015-03-02

A 57-year-old white woman was found to have profound prolongation of her prothrombin time (56.9 sec) and international normalized ratio (22.18), with other coagulation parameters relatively normal. She had no prior history of bleeding diatheses and was not taking any prescribed anticoagulants. Her coagulopathy rapidly corrected with the administration of fresh frozen plasma and vitamin K. After her medications were visually inspected, it was discovered that she had purchased her prescription medications from a pharmacy in Mexico and that she inadvertently had been taking a preparation of warfarin (proprietary name in Mexico, "Romesa") instead of the prescribed ramipril for her hypertension (proprietary name in Mexico, "Ramace"). After removal of the incorrect medication, she experienced no further prolongation of her coagulation parameters.

altace buy 2017-06-27

A prospective double-blind, randomized study was conducted to compare the effects of the beta 1 antagonist, beta 2 agonist celiprolol (200 mg daily) on renal hemodynamics and protein excretion with those of the beta 1 antagonist atenolol (50 mg daily), the ACE-inhibitor ramipril (2.5 mg daily), and placebo in 11 patients with proteinuria > 400 mg/24 h due to chronic glomerulonephritis. All 4 substances were given in a double-blind, randomized manner according to a latin-square design over a period of 4 weeks with a wash-out period of 2 weeks in between. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) were measured by inulin and PAH clearance. Proteinuria was assessed by urine sampling at the end of each treatment period. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was reduced significantly (p < 0.01) by all 3 drugs compared to placebo (108 +/- 9 mmHg placebo, 98 +/- 12 mmHg atenolol, 101 +/- 11 mmHg celiprolol, and 98 +/- 8 mmHg ramipril). Celiprolol induced a significant increase in ERPF compared to placebo (322 +/- 109 ml/min under placebo versus 391 +/- 110 ml/min under celiprolol, p < 0.05). GFR was slightly but insignificantly increased under atenolol and celiprolol. Filtration fraction (FF) remained unchanged in case of atenolol and celiprolol treatment and was slightly but not significantly reduced by ramipril. Proteinuria was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced compared to placebo by all 3 drugs (1.8 +/- 1.3 g/24 h under placebo, 1.2 +/- 1.2 g/24 h under atenolol, 1.2 +/- 1.1 g/24 h under celiprolol, and 1.4 +/- 1.4 g/24 h under ramipril). These data demonstrate that new beta-blocking agents show favorable effects on proteinuria and renal blood flow in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis and arterial hypertension. This may be attributed to their vasodilating properties.

altace buy 2016-12-08

In this double-blind, multicentre trial, 837 patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension (mean sitting diastolic blood pressure [BP] > 95 and < 110 mmHg) were randomised to once-daily aliskiren (150 mg titrated to 300 mg after four weeks; n=282), ramipril (5 mg titrated to 10 mg; n=278) or the combination (n=277) for eight weeks. Efficacy variables were cuff mean sitting diastolic BP (msDBP) and mean sitting systolic BP (msSBP); 24-hour ambulatory BP, plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were also assessed.

altace buy 2015-03-04

Telmisartan has a much greater lowering effect on PWD and Pmaximum values than ramipril. This finding may be important in the prevention of AF in hypertensive patients.

altace buy 2015-02-15

Similar BP decrease was observed in treatment groups. During follow-up, LVMI and CIMT progressed likewise in both treatment groups despite BP control. However, subgrouping analyses due to the pattern of left ventricular geometry showed that LVMI in patients with eccentric LVH increased, whereas LVMI decreased in subjects with concentric LVH under antihypertensive treatment.

altace buy 2016-01-30

To explore the relationship between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (I/D) gene polymorphism and the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in type 2 diabetic patients with atherosclerosis treated with ramipril.

altace buy 2017-09-25

The monitoring of the plasmatic concentrations of cardiovascular drugs is crucial for understanding their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. A simple, sensitive, specific, and high-throughput liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation and pharmacokinetic study of losartan (LOS), losartan carboxylic acid (LCA), ramipril (RAM), ramiprilate (RPT), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) in rat plasma using irbesartan (IBS) and metolazone (MET) as internal standards (ISs). After solid phase extraction (SPE), analytes and ISs were separated on an Agilent Poroshell 120, EC-C18 (50 mm × 4.6 mm, i.d., 2.7 μm) column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol/water (85:15, v/v) containing 5 mmol/L ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The precursor → product ion transitions for the analytes and ISs were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and switching the electrospray ionization (ESI) mode during chromatography from positive (to detect LOS, LCA, RAM, RPT, and IBS) to negative (to detect HCZ and MET). The method was validated as per the FDA guidelines and it exhibited sufficient specificity, accuracy, and precision. The method was found to be linear in the range of 3-3000 ng/mL for LOS and LCA, 0.1-200 ng/mL for RAM and RPT, and 1-1500 ng/mL for HCZ. The described method was successfully applied to the preclinical pharmacokinetic study of analytes after oral administration of a mixture of LOS (10 mg/kg), RAM (1 mg/kg), and HCZ (2.5 mg/kg) in rats.

altace buy 2016-01-19

ABT-869 [N-(4-(3-amino-1H-indazol-4-yl)phenyl)-N'-(2-fluoro-5-methylphenyl)urea] is a novel multitargeted inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor tyrosine kinase family members. ABT-869 demonstrates tumor growth inhibition in multiple preclinical animal models and in early clinical trials. VEGF receptor inhibition is also associated with reversible hypertension that may limit its benefit clinically. To evaluate optimal therapeutic approaches to prevent hypertension with VEGF receptor inhibition, we characterized the dose-dependent effects of seven antihypertensive agents from three mechanistic classes [angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs)] on hypertension induced by ABT-869 in conscious telemetry rats. We report that ABT-869-induced hypertension can be prevented and reversed with subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of antihypertensive drugs with a general rank order of ACEi > ARB > CCB. In SCID mice, the ACE inhibitor, enalapril (C(20)H(28)N(2)O(5) x C(4)H(4)O(4)) at 30 mg/kg, prevented hypertension, with no attenuation of the antitumor efficacy of ABT-869. These studies demonstrate that the adverse cardiovascular effects of the VEGF/PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, ABT-869, are readily controlled by conventional antihypertensive therapy without affecting antitumor efficacy.