Generic Albenza is a medication of high quality, which is taken in treatment of certain tapeworm infections. Generic Albenza is acting by killing sensitive parasites. It is an anthelmintic.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Albendazole.
The target of Generic Albenza is struggle against certain tapeworm infections. Generic Albenza is acting by killing sensitive parasites. It is an anthelmintic.
Generic name of Generic Albenza is Albendazole.
Albenza is also known as Albendazol, Albex, Alminth, Helmidazole, Eskazole, Zentel.
Brand name of Generic Albenza is Albenza.
If you have trouble swallowing the tablet whole, it may be crushed or chewed with a little water.
Take Generic Albenza tablets orally with food.
Take Generic Albenza at the same time with water.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Albenza suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Albenza and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Albenza are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Albenza if you are allergic to Generic Albenza components.
Try to be careful with Generic Albenza if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Albenza can harm your baby.
Generic Albenza may rarely lower the ability of your body to fight infection.
You must use an effective form of birth control while you take Generic Albenza and for at least 1 month after you stop taking it. .
Generic Albenza should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 1 year old.
Avoid alcohol if you want to achieve most effective results.
It can be dangerous to stop Generic Albenza taking suddenly.
Hydatid pulmonary embolism is an uncommon condition resulting from the rupture of a hydatid heart cyst or the opening of a visceral hydatid cyst into the venous circulation. We report a rare case with multiple intra-arterial pulmonary hydatid cyst emboli originating from a hepatic hydatid cyst ruptured into the hepatic segment of the inferior vena cava. We present the ultrasonography findings of hepatic hydatid cyst and multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography images demonstrating both multiple hydatid cyst emboli and their hepatic origin.
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This is a retrospective analysis to study the long term prognosis of epilepsy associated with single CT enhancing lesion (SCTEL). Follow up CT scan showed resolution of the lesion in all of the 102 patients. Seizures did not recur in 64 (63%) patients after starting antiepileptic drugs. Twenty eight (27.5%) patients had recurrence of seizures for a median period of 2 months before remission was achieved. In the remaining ten (10%) patients seizures remitted only after albendazole therapy and the median period of seizure recurrence was 8 months. Sixteen (42%) of the 38 patients who had recurrence of seizures had type B CT lesion (ring lesion with central enhancing area, probably scolex) (P<0.02 (95% CI 3.2-40.3)). Patients with type B CT lesion had more numbers of seizures and also longer intervals between first and last seizure. Antiepileptic drugs were withdrawn in all the 102 patients. The mean period of follow up was 45 months (range 19-101). Only one patient had a relapse and his follow up CT showed gliotic scar at the site of the previous lesion. We conclude that epilepsy associated with SCTEL is a benign form of epilepsy and seizures recur as long as the lesion persists. Antiepileptic drugs can safely be withdrawn once the follow up CT shows resolution of the lesion.
The mean age was 11.8 years in G1 and 9.7 years in G2. All of the patients were symptomatic in G1 but only 18% in G2 (P=0.003). The right lower lobe was most frequently involved in both G1 and G2. Surgical parenchymal resection was performed in five patients in G1 (16%) and in 2% in G2 (P=0.033). Postoperative complications in G1 were more significant comparatively to G2 (P=0.003).
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A 21-year-old Hispanic primigravida presented at 33 weeks' gestation with acute onset of mental status changes preceded by headaches and emesis. She was transferred comatose to our institution with a diagnosis of postictal state secondary to eclampsia. Upon arrival, the patient developed anisocoria, papilledema, posturing, and hypertension. Neuroimaging showed an intraventricular cyst. The patient was treated with ventriculostomy, induction of labor, postdelivery shunting, albendazole, and prednisone.
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The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional enzymes involved in cellular detoxification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of albendazole--drug of choice for trichinellosis--on the total activity and kinetics of cytosolic GST in the mouse intestines during experimental trichinellosis. Our results showed a statistically significant decrease in the total GST activity both in the small and large intestines of the mice infected with the nematode Trichinella spiralis (Owen, 1835) and treated with albendazole, compared with the control mice that were infected but untreated with the drug. Furthermore, albendazole administration modified the kinetics of substrate saturation of GST in the intestines of the infected mice because the drug caused changes in Michaelis constant values of this enzyme. Based on our observations, we suggest that the quaternary structure of GST from the mouse intestines is impacted by this drug during trichinellosis.
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This article evaluates the findings and conclusions of a recent meta-analysis of published data comparing the efficacy of the treatment of neurocysticercosis with albendazole and praziquantel in terms of both resolution of brain cysts and seizure control. From 103 related articles indexed in PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Controlled Trials, and quoted in reference lists, six prospective trials comparing albendazole with praziquantel (including patients infected with parasites in their cystic stage without perilesional inflammation and examining partial or total disappearance of cysts and/or control of seizures) were evaluated. The small number and heterogeneity of the included studies makes it difficult to assess the analyses provided. One of the studies was a pilot trial, at least three had grossly inadequate sample sizes and, owing to the way in which the data are presented in one of the studies, it is not possible to extract the proportion of parasites that resolved. None of the studies was designed to evaluate seizure control. The current published data does not provide enough basis to determine conclusively the superiority of either albendazole or praziquantel as first-line treatment of neurocysticercosis, and the choice of an antiparasitic drug is still guided by collateral factors, including drug availability and costs.
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Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is not a notifiable disease in Chile and has received little attention on the national medical literature. In order to evaluate the relevance and clinical features of the disease, we performed a retrospective analysis in a general hospital of five cases of NCC during a 11 years period. Age ranged from 3 to 63 years and all had history of living or visiting southern Chile. Three patients had a solitary parenchymal cyst in vesicular or granulomatous stages and presented with generalized seizures. Their outcome was favorable after anticonvulsant and albendazole therapy and cysts reduced in size and calcified during follow-up. The other 2 patients had extra-parenchymal or mixed forms, including a pregnant woman with intraventricular cysts who developed endocraneal hypertension and recurrent dysfunction of her ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This patient died after discharge despite an initial favorable evolution with steroids and high-dose albendazole. This case series showed that NCC is still an epidemiological and clinical problem in Chile, affects patients within a wide range of age including children, requires multidisciplinary therapeutic interventions, and has two clinical presentations with different prognosis including one malignant form. To control this infection, a surveillance or reporting system should be initiated.
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Neurocysticercosis, parasitic infestation of the central nervous system by the Taenia solium larvae, is a major public health problem, primarily in the developing countries. Seizures are the primary clinical manifestation which could be acute (secondary to active lesions) or remote symptomatic (due to calcified lesions). Cysticidal therapy is the standard of care for solitary parenchymal active neurocysticerci. However treatment related side effects and tendency to spontaneous resolution raises concern from time to time whether cysticidal therapy is actually required. This is a retrospective case record analysis of two groups of patients with solitary parenchymal neurocysticerci (group A; 171 patients between 2000 and 2004 who did not receive cysticidal therapy, group B; 512 patients between 2008 and 2013 who received cysticidal therapy). Group B had significantly more radiological resolution of lesions whereas group A reported significantly more seizure recurrences on antiepileptics. There was no significant difference in occurrence of calcification in the two groups. Overall patients with calcified lesions had significantly more breakthrough seizures. Well designed prospective studies should be planned in future to understand the mechanism underlying the epileptogenicity of calcified lesions and how they are linked to host and environment factors.
Describes specific features of development of larval multi-cystic echinococcosis in some laboratory animals infected with the Kamchatka and Kazakhstan strains of E. multilocularis. Analyses the efficacy of chemotherapy in animals infected with various strains of E. multilocularis.
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Eleven ruminant anthelmintics were administered to lambs over a 30-day period, using medicated feeds or multiple oral doses. Fenbendazole and its sulfinyl analog, oxfendazole, were effective (greater than 90%) in the control of clinical parasitism at feeding levels of 5 mg/kg of feed. Parbendazole and albendazole were effective at daily oral dose levels of 1 mg/kg of body weight and at feeding dose levels of 10 mg/kg of feed, respectively. Levamisole, mebendazole, and oxibendazole were ineffective in controlling intense natural parasitic infections of sheep at daily oral dose levels equal to or less than 1 mg/kg of body weight and/or a feeding level equal to or less than 10 mg/kg of feed.
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Hepatic lesions resembling subacute and chronic fasciolosis of ruminants were identified. An adult fluke was recovered from the liver of one of the birds and was identified as F hepatica. The eggs of the fluke were irregular in shape and size. No fluke eggs were identifiable in faeces of live emus 10 days after treatment of the flock with albendazole at a dose of 10 mg/kg.
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The patient presented from an outside hospital with 4 months duration of intermittent syncope and a dull occipital headache with greatest severity in the morning. He was noted to have left facial numbness and blurred vision confined to his left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) discovered multiple grape-like cystic structures throughout the subarachnoid space and frontal parenchyma consistent with neurocysticercosis. Additional testing revealed radiologic and culture evidence of active pulmonary tuberculosis.
This study analyzed the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses diagnosed shortly after arrival in the United States among African refugees before and after implementation of an overseas program of empirical treatment with albendazole. Variables included results of microscopy of a single stool specimen, age, sex, ethnicity, departure origin, and receipt of albendazole. Of 1,254 refugees, 56% had intestinal parasites. Fourteen percent had helminths, and 2% had multiple helminths. In addition, 52% had protozoans with 25% having multiple protozoans. The most common pathogens were Giardia lamblia (14%) and Trichuris trichiura (9%). Overall, refugees who arrived in Massachusetts after implementation of the treatment program were less likely to have any parasites (odds ratio [OR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47-0.78) and helminths (OR = 0.15, 95% CI = 0.09-0.24) than refugees who arrived previously. These more recently arrived refugees were also less likely to have hookworm (OR = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.00-0.29), Trichuris (OR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.02-0.13), Ascaris (OR = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.01-0.58), and Entamoeba histolytica (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.26-0.86). Empirically treating refugees prior to departure for the United States appears to have resulted in decreases in intestinal helminths and possibly some protozoans among African refugees tested shortly after arrival in this country.
The efficacy of a single dose of albendazole 400 mg, levamisole 2.5 mg/kg, mebendazole 500 mg, mebendazole 200 mg and pyrantel pamoate 10 mg/kg was evaluated in relation to the intensity of infection of Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus and Trichuris trichiura. The study group comprised 667 3 to 12 year old children from poorer segments of the community. All 5 treatments produced high egg reduction rates ranging from 95.9% to 99.7% and substantial cure rates for Ascaris infection; the differences observed in the 5 treatment groups were not significant (p greater than 0.05). Although all treatment groups were effective against Necator, the number of patients was too small to draw useful conclusions. In Trichuris infections, although higher cure rates were obtained in light compared to heavy infections, the results were uniformly poor in all treatment groups. The few side effects encountered were mild and did not require any intervention.
The assumed metabolic breakdown of albendazole by mucosal CYP3A4 enzymes was studied by coadministering albendazole (10 mg/kg) with grapefruit juice. Concentrations of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSX), the active metabolite of albendazole, were compared with those after albendazole was administered with water, a fatty meal, or grapefruit juice plus cimetidine (10 mg/kg). In comparison to water, maximum ABZSX concentration (Cmax) was enhanced 6.5-fold by a fatty meal (from 0.24 +/- 0.09 mg/l to 1.55 +/- 0.30 mg/l; mean +/- SD; P < 0.001) and 3.2-fold by grapefruit juice (from 0.24 +/- 0.09 mg/l to 0.76 +/- 0.37 mg/L; P = 0.031). When grapefruit juice was combined with cimetidine, Cmax was significantly lower than with grapefruit juice alone (0.41 +/- 0.29 mg/l and 0.76 +/- 0.37 mg/l, respectively; P = 0.022). The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC(0-omega)) followed a comparable pattern. Half-life (T(1/2)) was 8.8 +/- 4.2 hr and 8.2 +/- 4.3 hr after administration with water or a fatty meal (P = 1.000). Grapefruit juice shortened T(1/2) by 46% (P = 0.026). We hypothesize that albendazole is metabolized by CYP3A4 enzymes in the intestinal mucosa. This process can be inhibited by grapefruit juice. Cimetidine decreased albendazole bioavailability.
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Participants in this cluster-randomised trial were pre-school children in the defined catchment areas of 8338 state-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks (clusters) were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford, UK, between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200,000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of retinol effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6-72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1-5 months after any trial vitamin A to sample blood (for retinol assay, technically reliable only after mid-study), examine eyes, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100,000 visits, 25,000 deaths at ages 1·0-6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547.
Randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial.
The maximum incidence of neurocysticercosis was found in the age group between 21 and 30 years (43.41%). Seizures were the commonest clinical presentation (100%). Eleven patients (21.56%) had ring enhancing lesions with central scolex. Fourty patients (78.44%) showed only ring enhancing lesions. ELISA test for definitive neurocysticercosis showed a sensitivity of 82.60% and specificity of 100%, while patients with CT scan features of neurocysticercosis had a sensitivity of 78.43% with ELISA.
Cutaneous parasitic lesions, associated with a dense fibrous reaction, markedly improved under albendazole treatment in one case of supraumbilical skin localization of alveolar echinococcosis. Since collagen cross-linking increases during fibrogenesis and contributes to the stability of fibrotic lesions, we monitored the level of the cross-links pyridinoline and pentosidine in skin lesions from this patient to determine if they would reflect the changes occurring during treatment. We looked at the deposition of cross-linked type I collagen by immunohistochemistry and also measured the serum concentrations of pentosidine and of a fragment of type I collagen (ICTP), which contains a site of pyridinoline formation. Albendazole treatment did not affect either the collagen content of skin lesions or the serum concentrations of ICTP and pentosidine, but it led to a pronounced decrease in pyridinoline level concomitant with the disappearance, observed by immunohistochemistry, of extensively cross-linked fibrotic type I collagen. The follow-up of collagen cross-linking by pyridinoline in skin tissue thus appears to be useful in reflecting the improvement of fibrotic skin diseases during therapy.
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Four small studies met the inclusion criteria (a total of 2473 children and adults, of whom 536 had detectable microfilariae). No effect of albendazole on microfilaraemia was demonstrated in two studies (placebo controlled, RR 0.97, 95%CI 0.87 to 1.09, n = 195). When compared to ivermectin, albendazole performed worse (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98, 2 studies of patients initially microfilariae positive, n = 198). When compared to diethylcarbamazine, no statistically significant difference was detected, but numbers were small (n = 56). Two studies compared albendazole plus ivermectin to ivermectin alone on the presence of microfilaraemia. Results were mixed: one study showed the combination to be more effective (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.70, n = 52), but the other did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.25, n = 145). A further study compared albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine to diethylcarbamazine alone and did not demonstrate a difference on microfilaraemia prevalence (RR 1.57, 95% CI 0.44 to 5.60, n=35). No study examined the effects of the drugs on adult worms.
It was concluded that percutaneous drainage with albendazole therapy is an effective form of management for hepatic hydatid cysts.
Hydatid cysts of the spigelian lobe, that is, segment I of the liver, are rare. We analyzed their clinical and therapeutic particularities.
Hepato-pulmonary hydatidosis is a parasitic disease common in Mediterranean countries. Hydatid pulmonary embolism is extremely rare and is due to rupture of a cardiac hydatid cyst or, more rarely, rupture of a hepatic hydatid cyst. We report three cases of hydatid pulmonary embolism secondary to rupture of a hydatid cyst into the inferior vena cava. Thoracic imaging, mainly CT angiography and MRI, was important for both the diagnosis and decisions on treatment. The prognosis of intra-arterial pulmonary hydatid cyst is poor because of the risk of acute fatal complications such as anaphylactic shock and vascular rupture and also of chronic progression to cor pulmonale and respiratory failure. The therapeutic management is difficult and often only partially effective hence the importance of focusing on preventative treatment.
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Fasciola hepatica is a trematode rarely causing disease in humans. In symptomatic cases, while various pathologies such as damage to liver parenchyma, acute cholecystitis, and obstructive jaundice can be seen, the development of pancreatitis is rarely mentioned in the literature. The treatment of the disease is medical. In cases where no definite diagnosis can be made or in incidental cases where common bile duct exploration is being done, F. hepatica can be detected accidentally during operation. No consensus has yet been reached on the surgical procedure to be applied in this condition. We report on our case due to the rare occurrence of pancreatitis as a complication. In surgical cases, external drainage of the bile is both crucial in observing the response to the treatment, and also should be accepted as part of the treatment.
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The authors report a case of neurocysticercosis treated with Albendazole (methyl-5-propyl-thio-2-benzimidazilcarbamate). Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain presented various small bilateral parenchymal calcifications in the white matter and two inflammatory granulomatous formations localized respectively in the left and right posterior parietal lobe. After the serological diagnosis (Elisa-test) of cysticercosis, the patient was treated with albendazole (Zentel) with oral doses of 15 mg/kg/die for 20 days, and successively with a lower dose for another 40 days. Repeated CT and MRI showed a gradual reduction in the granulomas in comparison with the ones previously found, until the complete disappearance of the neuroradiological evidence of them. No side-effects were recorded during the treatment nor symptoms or neurological consequences in the period up until two years after the initial observation.
Hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus presents medical, veterinary and economic problems worldwide. Hydatidosis can be treated by medical, surgical and percutaneous modalities. Benzoimidazole carbamates are effective against E. granulosus. Although mebendazole, the first benzoimidazole used, has some beneficial effects on the disease in selected patients, it has also been associated with treatment failure in some cases, perhaps because of its poor absorption. Albendazole, a more recently developed benzoimidazole, is more effective than mebendazole. Praziquantel, an isoquinoline derivative, has recently shown value in the treatment of human echinococcal disease and its use in combination with albendazole is recommended in some patients. Ultrasound guided cyst puncture is another choice of treatment which has been used successfully in selected patients, although anaphylactic and allergic reactions due to spillage of the cyst contents have occurred. Surgical therapy in echinococcal hydatid disease is indicated for large cysts with multiple daughter cysts, superficially located single liver cysts which have a risk of rupture, complicated cysts such as those accompanied by infection, compression or obstruction, and cysts located in vital organs or which are exerting pressure on adjacent vital organs. However, surgical therapy carries high risk of mortality, morbidity or recurrence. Therefore, medical therapy may be an alternative option in uncomplicated cysts and in patients at high risk from surgery. The adjuvant use of drugs with surgery and percutaneous treatment can also be recommended for some patients.
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We present a case of polycystic hydatid disease produced by Echinococcus vogeli in a tapper of rubber trees from the State of Acre, Brazil. The most relevant clinical data were pain, increased abdominal volume caused by palpable painful masses, fever and poor clinical condition. Laboratory tests showed anemia, eosinophilia, hypoalbuminemia, hypergammaglobulinemia and increased plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase. Computerized tomography revealed diffuse cysts throughout the peritoneal cavity up to the pelvis, and inside the liver, pancreas and spleen. Anatomopathological examinations of cysts obtained by laparotomy confirmed the etiological diagnosis. Treatment with 10 mg/kg Albendazole for 6 months caused complete regression of the disease.
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Vertebral hydatid cysts are rare and found in less than 1% of all the cases of hydatidosis. Neural compression is common in vertebral hydatidosis. The prognosis is generally regarded as very poor. This paper examines the natural history and complications which may arise during the treatment of vertebral hydatid cyst, and discusses their treatment. Thirteen cases of hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae are presented. The patients were admitted with symptoms of spinal cord compression. Twelve were treated by laminectomy and one by costotransversectomy. Low back pain radiating to the legs and lower extremity weakness were the predominant symptoms. Different degrees of pareses were present in 12 patients. Nine patients had impaired sensation in lower extremities. In 13 patients, 27 operations were performed. The major complication of surgery was the death of one patient due to the formaline irrigation. The surgical goal should be an extensive removal of the cysts and affected bone. The surgical area needs to be irrigated with hypertonic saline. Mebendazole or albendazole therapy seems to retard the recurrences and control the disease.
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