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Among high vascular risk patients, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) reduces the relative risk of serious vascular events by about one fifth. However, because ASA fails to prevent four fifths of serious vascular events, more effective, yet equally safe and affordable, antiplatelet regimens are desired. Compared with ASA, clopidogrel alone reduces the odds of serious vascular events by about 10%, and the combination of dipyridamole and ASA reduces the odds of serious vascular events by about 6%. Combining ASA with an orally administered platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa blocker is not effective, and indeed more hazardous than ASA alone. Among patients with non-ST-segment acute coronary syndromes (ACS), the addition of an intravenously administered GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist to ASA reduces the risk of vascular events by about 10% compared with ASA, and the addition of clopidogrel to ASA reduces the risk of vascular events by 20% compared with ASA alone. Among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), both the addition of an intravenously administered GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist to ASA, and the addition of clopidogrel to ASA reduce the risk of vascular events by 30% compared with ASA alone. The greater efficacy of the combinations of ASA with clopidogrel, and ASA with an intravenously administered GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist, in patients with ACS and those undergoing PCI has fostered several ongoing and planned trials of these regimens in the acute and long-term management of patients with ischaemic brain syndromes. The combination of ASA and clopidogrel is being compared with ASA alone within 12 h of onset of symptoms of TIA in two trials (FASTER, ATARI), and the use of an intravenously administered GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist is being compared with placebo within 6 h of onset of acute ischaemic stroke in two trials (AbESST, AbESST-2). Six trials are assessing the combination of clopidogrel and ASA in the long-term management of patients with ischaemic brain syndromes due to atherothrombosis (MATCH, CHARISMA, ARCH, CARESS, SPS3) or atrial fibrillation (ACTIVE). The MATCH trial of clopidogrel and ASA versus clopidogrel alone in patients with recent TIA or ischaemic stroke is the first which is likely to report its results - in mid 2004. The combination of dipyridamole and ASA is being compared with ASA in the ESPRIT trial and with the combination of clopidogrel and ASA in the planned PRoFESS trial. These ongoing and planned clinical trials of antiplatelet therapy promise to further define the role of combination antiplatelet therapy in the acute and long-term management of patients with ischaemic brain syndromes.
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Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a severe multisystemic disorder of unknown origin. The association of relapsing TTP with pregnancy is rare but well documented and high mortality rates of mothers and fetuses have been reported so far. Since the introduction of plasma therapy for treating the acute exacerbations of the disease, overall mortality rates have decreased significantly. It is now evident that the manifestations of the disease may reappear even after long disease-free intervals and as many as a third of the recovering patients may develop a relapse. Presented are two TTP patients with relapsing TTP complicating their pregnancies. Prophylactic treatment with aspirin and dipyridamole during their last three successful pregnancies prevented or minimized the severity of TTP relapses. The course of these pregnancies and the management of such patients is discussed.
University department of cardiology.
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Angiotensin (ANG) II-induced relaxations in isolated dog renal and cerebral arteries are postulated to be mediated by the release of prostaglandin (PG) I2 from the arterial wall. In helical strips of dog renal arteries treated with dipyridamole, relaxations induced by ANG II (10(-7) M) and exogenously applied PGI2 (10(-8) M) were potentiated; the potentiation was appreciably greater in the ANG-induced relaxation. Treatment with phthalazinol did not alter the response to ANG II, but significantly potentiated the relaxation induced by PGI2. The ANG-induced relaxations were suppressed or reversed to contractions by aspirin or indomethacin. Combined treatment of dipyridamole with aspirin or indomethacin restored the relaxant response to ANG II, while phthalazinol in combination with aspirin did not restore the response. It may be concluded that the potentiation of responses to ANG II by dipyridamole is associated with increments in the release of PGI2 from the arterial wall and potentiations of the response of arterial smooth muscle to PGI2. Dipyridamole appears to increase the production of PGI2 even in the presence of PG synthesis inhibition by aspirin or indomethacin.
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Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.
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This is an update of our previous review; the goal was to create a valid synthesis of all available, methodologically sound data to further assess the safety and efficacy of combined oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy versus oral anticoagulant monotherapy in patients with prosthetic heart valves.
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Twenty dogs with naturally occurring metastatic tumors were treated with anticoagulants (Warfarin) or platelet enzyme inhibitor drugs (dipyridamole, dipyridamole plus aspirin, RA233, sulfinpyrazone, or a combination of RA233 and sulfinpyrazone) to determine if tumor-related reductions in platelet survival and concentration could be reversed. Anticoagulation was ineffective, while platelet enzyme inhibitors were able to produce improvements in platelet survival. Of the 18 dogs with metastatic tumor treated with platelet enzyme inhibitors, only 5 (28%) showed a reduction in platelet survival during the first week of observation on therapy compared to their baseline survivals. This is significantly different than the decreases in platelet survivals observed in 8 of 10 untreated dogs (80%) with metastatic tumor observed for the same interval. Furthermore, 8 of the 18 treated dogs (44%) had platelet survivals within 2 standard deviations of normal, compared to only 1 of 10 untreated dogs. Of the 8 dogs with normal platelet survivals, 6 were treated with a combination of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (RA233 or dipyridamole) and a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (sulfinpyrazone or aspirin). The combination of RA233 and sulfinpyrazone was the best drug program tested and resulted in normal platelet survivals in 63% and improved platelet counts in 75% of the animals treated. Thus, platelet enzyme inhibitors with different mechanisms of action may have a synergistic effect in reversing the abnormal platelet hemostasis found in a variety of spontaneously occurring canine neoplasms.
The aim of this study was to assess whether triple antiplatelet therapy is superior to dual and mono therapy in attenuating platelet and leucocyte function. Aspirin (A), clopidogrel (C), and dipyridamole (D) were administered singly and in various combinations (A, C, D, AC, AD, CD, ACD), each for two weeks (without washout) to 11 healthy subjects and to 11 patients with previous ischaemic stroke in two randomised multiway crossover trials. At the end of each two-week period platelet aggregation, platelet-leucocyte conjugate formation and leucocyte activation were measured ex vivo blinded to treatment. Platelets were stimulated with collagen; additional measurements were made with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), platelet activating factor (PAF), adrenaline and the combination of, ADP, PAF and adrenaline. Results show that in the presence of collagen, ACD was superior to all antagonists or combinations, except AC, in reducing aggregation, platelet-leucocyte conjugate formation, and monocyte activation (all p<0.05). ACD was also more potent than other treatments, except AC, in inhibiting the aggregation and platelet-monocyte conjugate formation induced by the combination of ADP, PAF and adrenaline. The effects were similar in both volunteers and stroke patients. No serious adverse events or major bleeding events occurred. Triple antiplatelet therapy did not appear to be more effective than combined aspirin and clopidogrel in moderating platelet and leucocyte function. Any additional clinical benefit provided by dipyridamole may be through other mechanisms of action.
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The adherence of 51Cr-labeled platelets to the subendothelium of rabbit aortas was inhibited in vitro and in vivo by high concentrations of dipyridamole (100 microM in vitro, 2.5 or 12.5 mg/kg in vivo). Dipyridamole (100 microM) inhibited release of 14C-serotonin from platelets that adhered to the subendothelium or to a collagen-coated glass surface; lower concentrations of dipyridamole had only a slight inhibitory effect. Scanning electron microscopy showed that many of the platelets that adhered to the subendothelium were rounded, with few pseudopodia. The combination of dipyridamole with PGI2 was no more inhibitory of platelet adherence than either agent alone; however, this combination of inhibitors exerted synergistic inhibitory effects on aggregation and release of 14C-serotonin from platelets aggregated by collagen. The effects of dipyridamole on platelet adherence are a consequence of the action of dipyridamole alone and do not appear to result from its interaction with PGI2 formed by injured vessels in vivo, since the inhibitory effect is not influenced by aspirin inhibition of PGI2 formation, either at the shear rates in the in vitro studies or under the shear conditions found in rabbit aortas in vivo.
We performed a study to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) plus dipyridamole on the retinal vascular pattern over 3 months in rats with experimental diabetes mellitus. Rats treated with ASA alone showed a continuous vascular bed and less tortuous vessels than untreated diabetic rats. Rats treated with ASA plus dipyridamole showed a continuous vascular bed, scarce tortuous vessels and vascular diameters similar to those in nondiabetic control rats. The findings were related to aortic prostacyclin production: treatment with ASA alone produced a reduction in prostacyclin production, whereas treatment with ASA plus dipyridamole resulted in normal prostacyclin production. ASA alone or with dipyridamole inhibited collagen-induced aggregation in whole blood by 57% compared with the untreated diabetic rats.
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We included 17 trials with 42,234 participants (mean age 64.4 years, 65% male) and follow up ranging from 4 weeks to 3.5 years. Compared with placebo, any single antiplatelet agent was associated with a significant reduction in recurrence of any stroke (risk ratio [RR] 0.77, 0.62-0.97, 2 studies) and ischemic stroke (RR 0.48, 0.30-0.78, 2 studies), but not for the composite outcome of any stroke, myocardial infarction, or death (RR 0.89, 0.75-1.05, 2 studies). When other antiplatelet agents (ticlodipine, cilostazol, and dipyridamole) were compared with aspirin, there was no consistent reduction in stroke recurrence (RR 0.91, 0.75-1.10, 3 studies). Dual antiplatelet therapy did not confer clear benefit over monotherapy (any stroke RR 0.83, 0.68-1.00, 3 studies; ischemic stroke RR 0.80, 0.62-1.02, 3 studies; composite outcome RR 0.90, 0.80-1.02, 3 studies).
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New oral drugs are being tested; these may be as effective at reducing stroke risk as warfarin in patients with AF. Direct thrombin inhibitors such as ximelagatran are not inferior to warfarin and, based on results from the SPORTIF III and V trials, are perhaps safer, with no need for long-term monitoring and dose adjustment. However, the side-effect of raised amounts of the liver enzyme alanine amino-transferase in 6% of patients needs to be resolved. In the ACTIVE trial, the efficacy of a combination of antiplatelet drugs (aspirin plus clopidogrel) is being tested against dose-adjusted warfarin; and in AMADEUS, the factor-Xa inhibitor and pentasaccharide idraparinux is being assessed in a similar way. Several surgical procedures and devices are also being developed to control AF rhythm and prevent stroke. WHERE NEXT?: The place of these new drugs in the management of AF needs to be established. In the short term, it seems that ximelagatran will replace warfarin in patients for whom there is evidence of a favourable risk-to-benefit ratio. The SPORTIF population consists of patients with AF plus at least one risk factor. More information about the effect of raised liver enzymes will probably not be available until phase IV studies are completed. Combination antiplatelet drugs need to be tested further--perhaps even triple therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and dipyridamole--if the results of ACTIVE are encouraging. The place of surgical procedures and devices to control rhythm and prevent stroke is unclear. Whatever happens, there is a high probability that the days of warfarin are numbered.
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These results suggest that dipyridamole potentiates the antiplatelet effect of cilostazol without prolongation of the bleeding time, implying a potential novel combination antithrombotic therapy.
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Although patients treated with regimens 2 and 4 were more ill at presentation than those treated with regimens 1 and 3, respectively, the duration of fever was shorter in the former patient groups (P =.0013). Coronary aneurysms developed least frequently in patients treated with regimen 4 and less frequently with regimen 2 than with regimen 1 (P =.0730). Multiple regression analysis showed significant reductions of fever and coronary aneurysm incidence with prednisolone (P <.0001 and P =.0307, respectively).
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A total of 353 patients met inclusion criteria: 273 non-ACAP (77%) and 80 ACAP (23%). Upon exclusion of three patients taking a combination of agents, 350 were available for advanced analyses. ACAP status was significantly related to in-hospital mortality. After adjustment for patient and injury characteristics, anticoagulant users were more likely than non-ACAP patients to show progression of initial hemorrhage and develop a new hemorrhagic focus. However, compared with non-ACAP users, antiplatelet users were more likely to die in the hospital. Among survivors to discharge, anticoagulant users were more likely to be discharged to a care facility, but this finding was not robust to adjustment.
We found that treatment with dipyridamole is associated with increased overall fracture risk, but not to the risk of osteoporotic fractures. In contrast, low-dose acetylsalicylic acid is associated to increased risk of overall fractures and fractures of the hip. Finally, in the current study clopidogrel is not associated with increased fracture risk.
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In 1988, an optimal antiplatelet regimen for secondary stroke prevention remained to be defined. We undertook a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to investigate the safely and efficacy of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), modified-release dipyridamole, and the two agents in combination. Patients with prior stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) were randomised to treatment with ASA alone (50 mg daily), modified-release dipyridamole alone (400 mg daily), the two agents in a combined formulation, or placebo. Primary endpoints were stroke, death, and stroke or death. TIA and other vascular events were secondary endpoints. Patients were followed on treatment for two years. We concluded that dipyridamole, in a modified-release form, at a dose of 200 mg b.d. and ASA 25 mg b.d., have been shown to be equally effective in the secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke and TIA; that when co-prescribed, the protective effects are additive, the combination being significantly more effective than each agent prescribed singly; and that low-dose ASA does not eliminate the propensity for induced bleeding.
Published articles and abstracts were identified from a MEDLINE search (1966-December 1999) using the search terms dipyridamole, aspirin, antiplatelet, antiaggregation, and stroke prevention. Pertinent articles written in English were considered for review. Additional articles were identified from the references of retrieved literature.
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Stroke is a leading cause of death and the primary cause of serious, long-term disability in the United States. Joint guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) and American Stroke Association (ASA), as well as recent guidelines from the Eighth American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) Conference on Antithrombotic and Antiplatelet Therapy, recommend aspirin, clopidogrel, or extended-release dipyridamole plus aspirin as acceptable first-line options for secondary prevention of ischemic events in patients with a history of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). The ACCP strongly recommends the combination of extended-release dipyridamole plus aspirin over aspirin monotherapy (highest level of evidence) and suggests clopidogrel monotherapy over aspirin monotherapy (lower level of evidence). The AHA-ASA guidelines suggest that either extended-release dipyridamole plus aspirin or clopidogrel monotherapy should be used over aspirin monotherapy. Both guidelines recommend avoiding the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin for most patients with previous stroke or TIA. Results from recent trials evaluating combination antiplatelet therapy have been published that enhance the AHA-ASA recommendations and provide the foundation for the updated ACCP guideline. To identify pertinent combination antiplatelet trials, a MEDLINE search of the literature from 1967-2007 was performed. Two trials were identified--the European-Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischemia Trial (ESPRIT) and Clopidogrel for High Atherothrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilization, Management, and Avoidance (CHARISMA). The ESPRIT compared aspirin monotherapy with the combination of aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole for prevention of secondary ischemic events in patients with a history of TIA or minor stroke. The CHARISMA trial compared aspirin plus clopidogrel with aspirin alone in a population at high risk for atherothrombotic events using the composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death from cardiovascular causes. Data from ESPRIT add to evidence that the combination of aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole is superior to aspirin alone. The findings of the CHARISMA trial reinforce recommendations from both AHA-ASA and ACCP that the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel be reserved for special populations requiring this antiplatelet combination (e.g., those who have had coronary artery stenting).
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In total, 426 patients (7.5%) had mRS score of 4 or 5 at baseline. The risk of an outcome event increased with mRS score. The relative risk associated with the combination of aspirin and dipyridamole compared to aspirin alone in patients with mRS score 0 to 5 was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.91). The relative risk according to mRS subcategory score 0 to 4 at baseline varied between 0.73 and 0.96 for vascular events and between 0.62 and 0.96 for stroke. The number of patients with mRS score 5 was too small for reliable estimates, but the data suggest a beneficial effect. There was no evidence of interaction between treatment effect and mRS score at baseline.
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To obtain, in a larger patient population, a more precise estimate of the possible differences in efficacy and safety between the two treatments.
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In the last ten years the relationship between the presence of lupus type anticoagulants in the blood and some obstetrical complications, in particular spontaneous abortions, repeated fetal deaths in utero and intra-uterine growth retardation, has been well documented. A study of the literature shows that there were only twenty live-born children out of 280 pregnancies in 71 women who had the lupus type anticoagulant factor. The presence of the factor in high levels in a pregnant woman was seen to be of poor prognostic significance for the obstetric outcome. Biologically the lupus type circulating anticoagulant should be suspected when there is a five to six seconds prolongation of clotting time and it is highly suspicious if the time is prolonged by more than seven seconds. Its presence should equally be suspected by testing for the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). It has been shown that early treatment directed to lessen the activity of the lupus type factor (the use of corticoid-immunosuppressors) and forestalling as far as possible placental insufficiency (by giving heparin, aspirin and dipyridamole) could help, thus enabling some women to have live children who would not otherwise be able to do so.
Initial reduced dose treatment with ASA+MR-DP may cause fewer headaches than regular dosing, and seems better tolerated by those susceptible to phosphodiesterase inhibitor-induced headache.
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Blood samples were drawn from healthy volunteers and platelet-rich plasma specimens were prepared at a concentration of 4 x 10(8)/mL. Abdominal aorta segments were obtained from New Zealand rabbits, they being deprived of endothelium by alpha-chymotrypsin. Red cells and platelets were separately or conjointly treated on reconstituted whole blood using ASA and DIP at therapeutic doses, separately or in association. Perfusion experiences were carried out in Baumgartner's annular chamber. Upon finishing the studies, the aorta segments were morphometrically evaluated by an optic analysis system attached to a computer with an automatic image recognition programme. The statistical analysis was performed with Student's t test, differences between groups of p < 0.05 being assigned significance.
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Secondary pharmacological prevention of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) is often provided with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), dipyridamole (DP) or a combination of the two. A problem with DP is the occurrence of headache, sometimes leading to medication cessation. By using a titration regime of DP the incidence of headache gets lower. However, there are no studies on interindividual differences in the incidence of headache with regard to age, gender, localization of stroke and the number of days since stroke onset.